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\input texinfo          @c -*- texinfo -*-
@c %**start of header
@setfilename asdf.info
@settitle ASDF Manual
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@syncodeindex tp fn
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@c %**end of header

@c We use @&key, etc to escape & from TeX in lambda lists --
@c so we need to define them for info as well.
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@macro AallowOtherKeys
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&allow-other-keys
@end macro
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@macro Aoptional
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@c for install-info
@dircategory Software development
@direntry
* asdf: (asdf).           Another System Definition Facility (for Common Lisp)
@end direntry

@copying
This manual describes ASDF, a system definition facility
for Common Lisp programs and libraries.

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You can find the latest version of this manual at
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@url{https://common-lisp.net/project/asdf/asdf.html}.
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ASDF Copyright @copyright{} 2001-2016 Daniel Barlow and contributors.
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This manual Copyright @copyright{} 2001-2016 Daniel Barlow and contributors.
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This manual revised @copyright{} 2009-2016 Robert P. Goldman and Francois-Rene Rideau.
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Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
``Software''), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be
included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS'', WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE
LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION
OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

@end copying

@titlepage
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@title ASDF: Another System Definition Facility
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@subtitle Manual for Version 3.1.7.43
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@c The following two commands start the copyright page.
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@insertcopying
@end titlepage

@c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
@contents

@c -------------------

@ifnottex

@node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
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@top ASDF: Another System Definition Facility
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@ifnottex
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Manual for Version 3.1.7.43
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@end ifnottex

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@insertcopying

@menu
* Introduction::
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* Quick start summary::
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* Loading ASDF::
* Configuring ASDF::
* Using ASDF::
* Defining systems with defsystem::
* The object model of ASDF::
* Controlling where ASDF searches for systems::
* Controlling where ASDF saves compiled files::
* Error handling::
* Miscellaneous additional functionality::
* Getting the latest version::
* FAQ::
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* Ongoing Work::
* Bibliography::
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* Concept Index::
* Function and Class Index::
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* Variable Index::              @c @detailmenu
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@c
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@detailmenu
 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
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Loading ASDF
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* Loading a pre-installed ASDF::
* Checking whether ASDF is loaded::
* Upgrading ASDF::
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* Replacing your implementation's ASDF::
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* Loading ASDF from source::

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Configuring ASDF
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* Configuring ASDF to find your systems::
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* Configuring ASDF to find your systems --- old style::
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* Configuring where ASDF stores object files::
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* Resetting the ASDF configuration::

Using ASDF

* Loading a system::
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* Convenience Functions::
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* Moving on::
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Defining systems with defsystem
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* The defsystem form::
* A more involved example::
* The defsystem grammar::
* Other code in .asd files::
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* The package-inferred-system extension::
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The Object model of ASDF
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* Operations::
* Components::
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* Dependencies::
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* Functions::
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Operations
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* Predefined operations of ASDF::
* Creating new operations::

Components

* Common attributes of components::
* Pre-defined subclasses of component::
* Creating new component types::
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properties

* Pre-defined subclasses of component::
* Creating new component types::

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Controlling where ASDF searches for systems

* Configurations::
* Truenames and other dangers::
* XDG base directory::
* Backward Compatibility::
* Configuration DSL::
* Configuration Directories::
* Shell-friendly syntax for configuration::
* Search Algorithm::
* Caching Results::
* Configuration API::
* Introspection::
* Status::
* Rejected ideas::
* TODO::
* Credits for the source-registry::

Configuration Directories

* The here directive::

Introspection

* *source-registry-parameter* variable::
* Information about system dependencies::

Controlling where ASDF saves compiled files

* Output Configurations::
* Output Backward Compatibility::
* Output Configuration DSL::
* Output Configuration Directories::
* Output Shell-friendly syntax for configuration::
* Semantics of Output Translations::
* Output Caching Results::
* Output location API::
* Credits for output translations::

Miscellaneous additional functionality

* Controlling file compilation::
* Controlling source file character encoding::
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* Miscellaneous Functions::
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* Some Utility Functions::

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FAQ

* Where do I report a bug?::
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* Mailing list::
* What has changed between ASDF 1 ASDF 2 and ASDF 3?::
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* Issues with installing the proper version of ASDF::
* Issues with configuring ASDF::
* Issues with using and extending ASDF to define systems::
* ASDF development FAQs::

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``What has changed between ASDF 1, ASDF 2, and ASDF 3?''
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* What are ASDF 1 2 3?::
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* How do I detect the ASDF version?::
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* ASDF can portably name files in subdirectories::
* Output translations::
* Source Registry Configuration::
* Usual operations are made easier to the user::
* Many bugs have been fixed::
* ASDF itself is versioned::
* ASDF can be upgraded::
* Decoupled release cycle::
* Pitfalls of the transition to ASDF 2::
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* Pitfalls of the upgrade to ASDF 3::
* What happened to the bundle operations::
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Issues with installing the proper version of ASDF

* My Common Lisp implementation comes with an outdated version of ASDF. What to do?::
* I'm a Common Lisp implementation vendor. When and how should I upgrade ASDF?::

Issues with configuring ASDF

* How can I customize where fasl files are stored?::
* How can I wholly disable the compiler output cache?::

Issues with using and extending ASDF to define systems

* How can I cater for unit-testing in my system?::
* How can I cater for documentation generation in my system?::
* How can I maintain non-Lisp (e.g. C) source files?::
* I want to put my module's files at the top level.  How do I do this?::
* How do I create a system definition where all the source files have a .cl extension?::
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* How do I mark a source file to be loaded only and not compiled?::
* How do I work with readtables?::
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* How can I capture ASDF's output?::
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* LOAD-PATHNAME has a weird value::
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ASDF development FAQs

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* How do I run the tests interactively in a REPL?::
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@end detailmenu
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@end menu

@end ifnottex

@c -------------------

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@node Introduction, Quick start summary, Top, Top
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@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Introduction
@cindex ASDF-related features
@vindex *features*
@cindex Testing for ASDF
@cindex ASDF versions
@cindex :asdf
@cindex :asdf2
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@cindex :asdf3
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ASDF is Another System Definition Facility:
a tool for specifying how systems of Common Lisp software
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are made up of components (sub-systems and files),
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and how to operate on these components in the right order
so that they can be compiled, loaded, tested, etc.
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If you are new to ASDF, @pxref{Quick start summary,,the quick start
guide}.
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ASDF presents three faces:
one for users of Common Lisp software who want to reuse other people's code,
one for writers of Common Lisp software who want to specify how to build their systems,
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and one for implementers of Common Lisp extensions who want to extend
the build system.
For more specifics,
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@pxref{Using ASDF},
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to learn how to use ASDF to load a system.
@xref{Defining systems with defsystem},
to learn how to define a system of your own.
@xref{The object model of ASDF}, for a description of
the ASDF internals and how to extend ASDF.

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Note that
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ASDF is @emph{not} a tool for library and system @emph{installation};
it plays a role like @code{make} or @code{ant}, not like a package manager.
In particular, ASDF should not to be confused with Quicklisp or ASDF-Install,
that attempt to find and download ASDF systems for you.
Despite what the name might suggest, ASDF-Install is not part of ASDF, but a separate piece of software.
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ASDF-Install is also unmaintained and obsolete.
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We recommend you use Quicklisp
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(@uref{http://www.quicklisp.org/}) instead,
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a Common Lisp package manager which works well and is being actively maintained.
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If you want to download software from version control instead of tarballs,
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so you may more easily modify it, we recommend clbuild (@uref{http://common-lisp.net/project/clbuild/}).
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We recommend @file{~/common-lisp/}
as a place into which to install Common Lisp software;
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starting with ASDF 3.1.2, it is included in the default source-registry configuration.
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Finally, note that this manual is incomplete.
All the bases are covered,
but many advanced topics are only barely alluded to,
and there is not much in terms of examples.
The source code remains the ultimate source of information,
free software systems in Quicklisp remain the best source of examples,
and the mailing-list the best place to ask for help.


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@node  Quick start summary, Loading ASDF, Introduction, Top
@chapter Quick start summary

@itemize

@item To load an ASDF system:

@itemize
@item
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Load ASDF itself into your Lisp image, using
@code{(require "asdf")}.
Check that you have a recent version using @code{(asdf:asdf-version)}.
For more details, or if any of the above fails, @pxref{Loading ASDF}.
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@item
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Make sure software is installed where ASDF can find it.
The simplest way is to put all your Lisp code in subdirectories of
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@file{~/common-lisp/} (starting with ASDF 3.1.2),
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or @file{~/.local/share/common-lisp/source/}
(for ASDF 2 and later, or if you want to keep source in a hidden directory).
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For more details, @pxref{Configuring ASDF to find your systems}.
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@item
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Load your system with @code{(asdf:load-system "@var{my-system}")}.
@xref{Using ASDF}.
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@end itemize

@item To make your own ASDF system:

@itemize
@item
As above, load and configure ASDF.
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@item
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Make a new directory for your system, @code{@var{my-system}/},
again in a location where ASDF can find it.
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All else being equal, the easiest location is probably
@file{~/common-lisp/my-system/}.
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@xref{Configuring ASDF to find your systems}.
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@item
Create an ASDF system definition listing the dependencies of
your system, its components, and their interdependencies,
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and put it in @file{@var{my-system}.asd}.
This file must have the same name as your system, all lowercase.
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@xref{Defining systems with defsystem}.

@item
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Use @code{(asdf:load-system "@var{my-system}")}
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to make sure it's all working properly. @xref{Using ASDF}.

@end itemize
@end itemize

@c FIXME: (1) add a sample project that the user can cut and paste to
@c get started.  (2) discuss the option of starting with Quicklisp.





@node Loading ASDF, Configuring ASDF, Quick start summary, Top
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@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Loading ASDF

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@menu
* Loading a pre-installed ASDF::
* Checking whether ASDF is loaded::
* Upgrading ASDF::
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* Replacing your implementation's ASDF::
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* Loading ASDF from source::
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@end menu
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@node  Loading a pre-installed ASDF, Checking whether ASDF is loaded, Loading ASDF, Loading ASDF
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@section Loading a pre-installed ASDF

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The recommended way to load ASDF is via:
@lisp
(require "asdf")
@end lisp

All actively maintained Lisp implementations now include a copy of ASDF 3
that you can load this way using Common Lisp's @code{require} function.@footnote{
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NB: all implementations except GNU CLISP also accept
@code{(require "ASDF")}, @code{(require 'asdf)} and @code{(require :asdf)}.
For portability's sake, you should use @code{(require "asdf")}.
}
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If the implementation you are using doesn't provide a recent ASDF 3,
we recommend you upgrade it.
If for some reason you would rather not upgrade it,
we recommend you replace your implementation's ASDF.
@xref{Replacing your implementation's ASDF}.
If all else fails, see @pxref{Loading ASDF from source} below.

If you use an actively maintained implementation that fails to provide
an up-to-date enough stable release of ASDF,
you may also send a bug report to your Lisp vendor and complain about it
--- or you may fix the issue yourself if it's free software.
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As of the writing of this manual,
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the following implementations provide ASDF 3 this way:
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ABCL, Allegro CL, CLASP, Clozure CL, CMUCL, ECL, GNU CLISP, LispWorks, MKCL, SBCL.
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The following implementations only provide ASDF 2:
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MOCL, XCL.
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The following implementations don't provide ASDF:
Corman CL, GCL, Genera, MCL, SCL.
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The latter implementations are not actively maintained (except maybe GCL);
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if some of them are ever released again, they probably will include ASDF 3.
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For maximum convenience you might want to have ASDF loaded
whenever you start your Lisp implementation,
for example by loading it from the startup script or dumping a custom core
--- check your Lisp implementation's manual for details.
SLIME notably sports a @code{slime-asdf} contrib that makes life easier with ASDF.

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@node Checking whether ASDF is loaded, Upgrading ASDF, Loading a pre-installed ASDF, Loading ASDF
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@section Checking whether ASDF is loaded

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To check that ASDF is properly loaded, you can run this form:
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@lisp
(asdf:asdf-version)
@end lisp

If it returns a string,
that is the version of ASDF that is currently installed.
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If that version is suitably recent (say, 3.1.2 or later),
then you can skip directly to next chapter: @xref{Configuring ASDF}.
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If it raises an error,
then either ASDF is not loaded, or
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you are using a very old version of ASDF,
and need to install ASDF 3.
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For more precision in detecting versions old and new,
@pxref{How do I detect the ASDF version?}.
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If you are experiencing problems with ASDF,
please try upgrading to the latest released version,
using the method below,
before you contact us and raise an issue.
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@node  Upgrading ASDF, Replacing your implementation's ASDF, Checking whether ASDF is loaded, Loading ASDF
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@section Upgrading ASDF
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@c FIXME: tighten this up a bit -- there's a lot of stuff here that
@c doesn't matter to almost anyone.  Move discussion of updating antique
@c versions of ASDF down, or encapsulate it.

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If your implementation already provides ASDF 3 or later (and it should),
but you want a more recent ASDF version than your implementation provides,
then you just need to ensure the more recent ASDF is installed in a configured path, like any other system.
We recommend you download an official tarball or checkout a release from git into
@file{~/common-lisp/asdf/}.
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(@pxref{Configuring ASDF to find your systems}).
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Once the source code for ASDF is installed,
you don't need any extra step to load it beyond the usual @code{(require "asdf")}:
ASDF 3 will automatically look whether an updated version of itself is available
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amongst the regularly configured systems, before it compiles anything else.

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If your implementation fails to provide ASDF 3 or later,
@pxref{Replacing your implementation's ASDF}.
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@node Replacing your implementation's ASDF, Loading ASDF from source, Upgrading ASDF, Loading ASDF
@section Replacing your implementation's ASDF
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All maintained implementations now provide ASDF 3 in their latest release.
If your doesn't, we recommend you upgrade it.
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Now, if you insist on using an old implementation that didn't provide ASDF or provided an old version,
we recommend installing a recent ASDF, as explained below,
into your implementation's installation directory.
Thus your modified implementation will now provide ASDF 3.
This requires proper write permissions and may necessitate execution as a system administrator.
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The ASDF source repository contains a tool to help you upgrade your implementation's ASDF.
You can invoke it from the shell command-line as
@code{tools/asdf-tools install-asdf lispworks}
(where you can replace @code{lispworks} by the name of the relevant implementation),
or you can @code{(load "tools/install-asdf.lisp")} from your Lisp REPL.
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This script works on
Allegro CL, Clozure CL, CMU CL, ECL, GCL, GNU CLISP, LispWorks, MKCL, SBCL, SCL, XCL.
It doesn't work on ABCL, Corman CL, Genera, MCL, MOCL.
Happily, ABCL is usually pretty up to date and shouldn't need that script.
GCL requires a very recent version, and hasn't been tested much.
Corman CL, Genera, MCL are obsolete anyway.
MOCL is incomplete.
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@node Loading ASDF from source,  , Replacing your implementation's ASDF, Loading ASDF
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@section Loading ASDF from source
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If you write build scripts that must remain portable to old machines with old implementations
that you cannot ensure have been upgraded or modified to provide a recent ASDF,
you may have to install the file @file{asdf.lisp}
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somewhere and load it with:

@lisp
(load "/path/to/your/installed/asdf.lisp")
@end lisp

The single file @file{asdf.lisp} is all you normally need to use ASDF.

You can extract this file from latest release tarball on the
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@url{https://common-lisp.net/project/asdf/,ASDF website}.
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If you are daring and willing to report bugs, you can get
the latest and greatest version of ASDF from its git repository.
@xref{Getting the latest version}.

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For scripts that try to use ASDF simply via @code{require} at first, and
make heroic attempts to load it the hard way if at first they don't succeed,
see @file{tools/load-asdf.lisp} distributed with the ASDF source repository,
or the code of @url{https://cliki.net/cl-launch,@code{cl-launch}}.
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@node Configuring ASDF, Using ASDF, Loading ASDF, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Configuring ASDF

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For standard use cases, ASDF should work pretty much out of the box.
We recommend you skim the sections on configuring ASDF to find your systems
and choose the method of installing Lisp software that works best for you.
Then skip directly to @xref{Using ASDF}. That will probably be enough.
You are unlikely to have to worry about the way ASDF stores object files,
and resetting the ASDF configuration is usually only needed in corner cases.


@menu
* Configuring ASDF to find your systems::
* Configuring ASDF to find your systems --- old style::
* Configuring where ASDF stores object files::
* Resetting the ASDF configuration::
@end menu

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@node Configuring ASDF to find your systems, Configuring ASDF to find your systems --- old style, Configuring ASDF, Configuring ASDF
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@section Configuring ASDF to find your systems

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In order to compile and load your systems, ASDF must be configured to find
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the @file{.asd} files that contain system definitions.

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There are a number of different techniques for setting yourself up with
ASDF, starting from easiest to the most complex:

@itemize @bullet
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@item
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Put all of your systems in one of the standard locations,
subdirectories of
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@itemize
@item
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@file{~/common-lisp/} or
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@item
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@file{~/.local/share/common-lisp/source/}.
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@end itemize
If you install software there, you don't need further
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configuration.@footnote{
  @file{~/common-lisp/} is only included in
  the default configuration
  starting with ASDF 3.1.2 or later.
  If your implementation provides an earlier variant of ASDF,
  you may need to explicitly configure it to use this path,
  as further explained.
}
You can then skip to the next section. @xref{Loading a system}.
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@item
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If you're using some tool to install software (e.g. Quicklisp),
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the authors of that tool should already have configured ASDF.

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@item
If you have more specific desires about how to lay out your software on
disk, the preferred way to configure where ASDF finds your systems is
the @code{source-registry} facility,
fully described in its own chapter of this manual.
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@xref{Controlling where ASDF searches for systems}.
Here is a quick recipe for getting started.

First create the directory
@file{~/.config/common-lisp/source-registry.conf.d/}@footnote{
  For Windows users, and starting with ASDF 3.1.5, start from your
  @file{%LOCALAPPDATA%}, which is usually @file{~/AppData/Local/}
  (but you can ask in a @code{CMD.EXE} terminal
  @code{echo %LOCALAPPDATA%} to make sure)
  and underneath create a subpath
  @file{config/common-lisp/source-registry.conf.d/}.
};
there create a file with any name of your choice
but with the type @file{conf}@footnote{
  By requiring the @file{.conf}
  extension, and ignoring other files, ASDF allows you to have disabled files,
  editor backups, etc. in the same directory with your active
  configuration files.

  ASDF will also ignore files whose names start with a @file{.} character.

  It is customary to start the filename with two digits, to control the
  sorting of the @code{conf} files in the source registry directory, and
  thus the order in which the directories will be scanned.
},
for instance @file{50-luser-lisp.conf};
in this file, add the following line
to tell ASDF to recursively scan all the subdirectories under @file{/home/luser/lisp/}
for @file{.asd} files:
@kbd{(:tree "/home/luser/lisp/")}
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That's enough. You may replace @file{/home/luser/lisp/} by wherever you want to install your source code.
You don't actually need to specify anything if you use the default @file{~/common-lisp/} as above
and your implementation provides ASDF 3.1.2 or later.
If your implementation provides an earlier variant of ASDF 3,
you might want to specify @kbd{(:tree (:home "common-lisp/"))} for bootstrap purposes,
then install a recent source tree of ASDF under @file{~/common-lisp/asdf/}.
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If you prefer to use a ``link farm'', which is faster to use but costlier to manage than a recursive traversal,
say at @file{/home/luser/.asd-link-farm/}, then
you may instead (or additionally) create a file @file{42-asd-link-farm.conf}, containing the line:
@kbd{(:directory "/home/luser/.asd-link-farm/")}
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ASDF will automatically read your configuration
the first time you try to find a system.
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If necessary, you can reset the source-registry configuration with:
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@lisp
(asdf:clear-source-registry)
@end lisp

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@item
In earlier versions of ASDF, the system source registry was configured
using a global variable, @code{asdf:*central-registry*}.
For more details about this, see the following section,
@ref{Configuring ASDF to find your systems --- old style}.
Unless you need to understand this,
skip directly to @ref{Configuring where ASDF stores object files}.

@end itemize

Note that your Operating System distribution or your system administrator
may already have configured system-managed libraries for you.


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@node Configuring ASDF to find your systems --- old style, Configuring where ASDF stores object files, Configuring ASDF to find your systems, Configuring ASDF
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@section Configuring ASDF to find your systems --- old style

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@c FIXME: this section should be moved elsewhere.  The novice user
@c should not be burdened with it. [2014/02/27:rpg]
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Novices may skip this section.
@c ``Experts may read it then proceed to ...''
@c some better section explaining
@c *central-registry* vs source-registry vs *system-definition-search-functions*,
@c and .../asdf/tools/cl-source-registry-cache.lisp
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The old way to configure ASDF to find your systems is by
@code{push}ing directory pathnames onto the variable
@code{asdf:*central-registry*}.

You must configure this variable between the time you load ASDF
and the time you first try to use it.
Loading and configuring ASDF presumably happen
as part of some initialization script that builds or starts
your Common Lisp software system.
(For instance, some SBCL users used to put it in their @file{~/.sbclrc}.)

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The @code{asdf:*central-registry*} is empty by default in ASDF 2 or ASDF 3,
700
but is still supported for compatibility with ASDF 1.
701
When used, it takes precedence over the above source-registry.@footnote{
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It is possible to further customize
the system definition file search.
That's considered advanced use, and covered later:
search forward for
@code{*system-definition-search-functions*}.
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@xref{Defining systems with defsystem}.}
708

709 710
For example, let's say you want ASDF to find the @file{.asd} file
@file{/home/me/src/foo/foo.asd}.
711
In your Lisp initialization file, you could have the following:
712 713

@lisp
714
(require "asdf")
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(push "/home/me/src/foo/" asdf:*central-registry*)
@end lisp

Note the trailing slash: when searching for a system,
ASDF will evaluate each entry of the central registry
720
and coerce the result to a pathname.@footnote{
721
ASDF will indeed call @code{eval} on each entry.
722
It will skip entries that evaluate to @code{nil}.
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Strings and pathname objects are self-evaluating,
725
in which case the @code{eval} step does nothing;
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but you may push arbitrary s-expressions onto the central registry.
These s-expressions may be evaluated to compute context-dependent
entries, e.g. things that depend
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on the value of shell variables or the identity of the user.

The variable @code{asdf:*central-registry*} is thus a list of
``system directory designators''.
A @dfn{system directory designator} is a form
which will be evaluated whenever a system is to be found,
735
and must evaluate to a directory to look in (or @code{nil}).
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By ``directory'', we mean
``designator for a pathname with a non-empty DIRECTORY component''.
738
}
739
The trailing directory name separator
740
is necessary to tell Lisp that you're discussing a directory
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rather than a file.  If you leave it out, ASDF is likely to look in
@code{/home/me/src/} instead of @code{/home/me/src/foo/} as you
intended, and fail to find your system definition.
744

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Typically there are a lot of @file{.asd} files, and
a common idiom was to put
@emph{symbolic links} to all of one's @file{.asd} files
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in a common directory
and push @emph{that} directory (the ``link farm'')
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onto
@code{asdf:*central-registry*},
instead of pushing each individual system directory.

ASDF knows to follow @emph{symlinks}
to the actual location of the systems.@footnote{
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  On Windows, you can use Windows shortcuts instead of POSIX symlinks.
  if you try aliases under MacOS, we are curious to hear about your experience.
}
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For example, if @code{#p"/home/me/cl/systems/"}
is an element of @code{*central-registry*}, you could set up the
system @var{foo} as follows:
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@example
$ cd /home/me/cl/systems/
$ ln -s ~/src/foo/foo.asd .
@end example

This old style for configuring ASDF is not recommended for new users,
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but it is supported for old users, and for users who want a simple way to
programmatically control what directories are added to the ASDF search path.
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774
@node Configuring where ASDF stores object files, Resetting the ASDF configuration, Configuring ASDF to find your systems --- old style, Configuring ASDF
775
@section Configuring where ASDF stores object files
776
@findex clear-output-translations
777 778 779 780 781

ASDF lets you configure where object files will be stored.
Sensible defaults are provided and
you shouldn't normally have to worry about it.

782
This allows the same source code repository to be shared
783
between several versions of several Common Lisp implementations,
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between several users using different compilation options,
with users who lack write privileges on shared source directories, etc.
This also keeps source directories from being cluttered
with object/fasl files.
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Starting with ASDF 2, the @code{asdf-output-translations} facility
790
was added to ASDF itself.  This facility controls where object files will be stored.
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This facility is fully described in a chapter of this manual,
@ref{Controlling where ASDF saves compiled files}.

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@c FIXME: possibly this should be moved elsewhere.  It's redundant here,
@c and makes this section of the manual too long and daunting for the
@c new user. [2014/02/27:rpg]
@c The simplest way to add a translation to your search path,
@c say from @file{/foo/bar/baz/quux/}
@c to @file{/where/i/want/my/fasls/}
@c is to create the directory
@c @file{~/.config/common-lisp/asdf-output-translations.conf.d/}
@c and there create a file with any name of your choice and the type @file{conf},
@c for instance @file{42-bazquux.conf}
@c containing the line:

@c @kbd{("/foo/bar/baz/quux/" "/where/i/want/my/fasls/")}

@c To disable output translations for source under a given directory,
@c say @file{/toto/tata/}
@c you can create a file @file{40-disable-toto.conf}
@c with the line:

@c @kbd{("/toto/tata/")}

@c To wholly disable output translations for all directories,
@c you can create a file @file{00-disable.conf}
@c with the line:

@c @kbd{(t t)}

@c Note that your Operating System distribution or your system administrator
@c may already have configured translations for you.
@c In absence of any configuration, the default is to redirect everything
@c under an implementation-dependent subdirectory of @file{~/.cache/common-lisp/}.
@c @xref{Controlling where ASDF searches for systems}, for full details.

@c The required @file{.conf} extension allows you to have disabled files
@c or editor backups (ending in @file{~}), and works portably
@c (for instance, it is a pain to allow both empty and non-empty extension on CLISP).
@c Excluded are files the name of which start with a @file{.} character.
@c It is customary to start the filename with two digits
@c that specify the order in which the directories will be scanned.

@c ASDF will automatically read your configuration
@c the first time you try to find a system.
@c You can reset the source-registry configuration with:

@c @lisp
@c (asdf:clear-output-translations)
@c @end lisp

@c And you probably should do so before you dump your Lisp image,
@c if the configuration may change
@c between the machine where you save it at the time you save it
@c and the machine you resume it at the time you resume it.
@c (Once again, you should use @code{(asdf:clear-configuration)}
@c before you dump your Lisp image, which includes the above.)

Note that before ASDF 2,
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other ASDF add-ons offered the same functionality,
each in subtly different and incompatible ways:
ASDF-Binary-Locations, cl-launch, common-lisp-controller.
ASDF-Binary-Locations is now not needed anymore and should not be used.
854
cl-launch 3.000 and common-lisp-controller 7.2 have been updated
855
to delegate object file placement to ASDF.
856

857
@node Resetting the ASDF configuration,  , Configuring where ASDF stores object files, Configuring ASDF
858 859
@section Resetting the ASDF configuration

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@c FIXME: this should probably be moved out of the "quickstart" part of
@c the manual. [2014/02/27:rpg]
862

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When you dump and restore an image, or when you tweak your configuration,
you may want to reset the ASDF configuration.
For that you may use the following function:

@defun clear-configuration
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   Undoes any ASDF configuration
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   regarding source-registry or output-translations.
@end defun

873
@vindex *image-dump-hook*
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This function is pushed onto the @code{uiop:*image-dump-hook*} by default,
which means that if you save an image using @code{uiop:dump-image},
or via @code{asdf:image-op} and @code{asdf:program-op},
it will be automatically called to clear your configuration.
If for some reason you prefer to call your implementation's underlying functionality,
be sure to call @code{clear-configuration} manually,
or push it into your implementation's equivalent of @code{uiop:*image-dump-hook*},
e.g. @code{sb-ext:*save-hooks*} on SBCL, or @code{ext:*before-save-initializations*}
on CMUCL and SCL, etc.
883

884
@node  Using ASDF, Defining systems with defsystem, Configuring ASDF, Top
885 886
@chapter Using ASDF

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@menu
* Loading a system::
889
* Convenience Functions::
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* Moving on::
@end menu

893
@node Loading a system, Convenience Functions, Using ASDF, Using ASDF
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@section Loading a system

The system @var{foo} is loaded (and compiled, if necessary)
by evaluating the following Lisp form:

@example
(asdf:load-system :@var{foo})
@end example

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On some implementations (@pxref{Convenience Functions}),
ASDF hooks into the @code{cl:require} facility and you can just use:
905 906 907 908 909

@example
(require :@var{foo})
@end example

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Note that the canonical name of a system is a string, conventionally lowercase.
A system name can also be specified as a symbol (including a keyword),
in which case its @code{symbol-name} is taken and lowercased.
913
The name must be a suitable value for the @code{:name} initarg
914
to @code{make-pathname} in whatever filesystem the system is to be found.
915

916 917
The lower-casing-symbols behaviour is unconventional,
but was selected after some consideration.
918 919 920 921 922
The type of systems we want to support
either have lowercase as customary case (Unix, Mac, Windows)
or silently convert lowercase to uppercase (lpns).
@c so this makes more sense than attempting to use @code{:case :common},
@c which is reported not to work on some implementations
923

924

925 926 927 928 929 930 931 932 933 934
@node Convenience Functions, Moving on, Loading a system, Using ASDF
@section Convenience Functions

@c I believe thes are all unnecessary because of the function macros
@c below [2016/01/30:rpg]
@c @findex load-system
@c @findex compile-system
@c @findex test-system
@c @findex require-system
@c @findex make
935

936
ASDF provides three commands for the most common system operations:
937
@code{load-system}, @code{compile-system}, and @code{test-system}.
938

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ASDF also provides @code{require-system}, a variant of @code{load-system}
that skips loading systems that are already loaded.  This is sometimes
useful, for example, in order to avoid re-loading libraries that come
pre-loaded into your  lisp implementation.

ASDF also provides @code{make}, a way of allowing system developers to
choose a default operation for their systems.  For example, a developer
who has created a system intended to format a specific document, might
make document-formatting the default operation invoked by @code{make},
instead of loading.  If the system developer doesn't specify in the
system definition, the default operation will be loading.
950

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@c FIXME: We seem to export @findex bundle-system also, that some ECL users seem to rely on.
@c But it's probably better that bundle operations have their own manual chapter at some point.


@c FIXME: There should be a @defun for OPERATE, but there isn't.  Not
@c sure where it belongs...  The discussion here is just confusing if
@c the reader doesn't understand how ASDF works. [2016/01/30:rpg]
958 959 960
@findex operate
@findex oos

961 962
Because ASDF is an extensible system
for defining @emph{operations} on @emph{components},
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it also provides a generic function @code{operate},
so you may arbitrarily operate on your systems beyond the default operations.
(At the interactive REPL, users often use its shorter alias @code{oos},
which stands for operate-on-system, a name inherited from @code{mk-defsystem}.)
You'll use @code{operate} whenever you want to do something beyond
968 969
compiling, loading and testing.

970 971
@c Reminder: before ASDF can operate on a system, however,
@c it must be able to find and load that system's definition.
972
@c @xref{Configuring ASDF to find your systems}.
973

974 975
@c FIXME: the following is too complicated for here, especially since
@c :force hasn't been defined yet.  Move it. [2014/02/27:rpg]
976

977
@vindex *load-system-operation*
978
@findex already-loaded-systems
979

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@defun load-system system @Arest{} keys @Akey{} force force-not verbose version @AallowOtherKeys{}
Apply @code{operate} with the operation from
@code{*load-system-operation*}
the @var{system}, and any provided keyword arguments.
@code{*load-system-operation*} by default is @code{load-op};
it would be @code{load-bundle-op} by default on ECL,
if only an implementation bug were fixed.
Calling @code{load-system} is the regular, recommended way
to load a system into the current image.
@end defun

@defun compile-system system @Arest{} keys @Akey{} force force-not verbose version @AallowOtherKeys{}
Apply @code{operate} with the operation @code{compile-op},
the @var{system}, and any provided keyword arguments.
This will make sure all the files in the system are compiled,
but not necessarily load any of them in the current image;
on most systems, it will @emph{not} load all compiled files in the current image.
This function exists for symmetry with @code{load-system} but is not recommended
unless you are writing build scripts and know what you're doing.
But then, you might be interested in @code{program-op} rather than @code{compile-op}.
@end defun

@defun test-system system @Arest{} keys @Akey{} force force-not verbose version @AallowOtherKeys{}
Apply @code{operate} with the operation @code{test-op},
the @var{system}, and any provided keyword arguments.
@xref{test-op}.
@end defun
1007

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@defun make system @Arest{} keys @Akey{} @AallowOtherKeys{}
Do ``The Right Thing'' with your system.
Starting with ASDF 3.1, this function @code{make} is also available.
The default behaviour is to load the system as if by @code{load-system};
but system authors can override this default in their system definition
they may specify an alternate operation as the intended use of their system,
with a @code{:build-operation} option in the @code{defsystem} form
(@pxref{The defsystem grammar, build-operation}),
and an intended output pathname for that operation with
@code{:build-pathname}.
@c Document :build-operation in the defsystem section.
@c Document in the extension section that for richer programmatic access, you may instead use an overriding
@c @code{(defmethod component-depends-on ((o build-op) (s system))
@c ...)}.
This function is experimental and largely untested.  Use at your own risk.
@end defun
@cindex build-operation

@defun require-system system @Arest{} keys @Akey{} @AallowOtherKeys{}
@code{require-system} skips any update to systems that have already been loaded,
in the spirit of @code{cl:require}.
It does it by calling @code{load-system} with a keyword option
excluding already loaded systems.@footnote{
  For the curious, the option is @code{:force-not (already-loaded-systems)}.
}.
On actively maintained free software implementations
(namely recent versions of ABCL, Clozure CL, CMUCL, ECL, GNU CLISP, MKCL and SBCL),
once ASDF itself is loaded, @code{cl:require} too can load ASDF systems,
by falling back on @code{require-system}
for module names not recognized by the implementation.
(Note however that @code{require-system} does @emph{not} fall back on @code{cl:require};
that would introduce an ``interesting'' potential infinite loop to break somehow.)

@code{cl:require} and @code{require-system} are appropriate to load code
that is not being modified during the current programming session.
@code{cl:require} will notably load the implementation-provided extension modules;
@code{require-system} won't, unless they are also defined as systems somehow,
which SBCL and MKCL do.
@code{require-system} may also be used to load any number of ASDF systems
that the user isn't either developing or debugging,
for which a previously installed version is deemed to be satisfactory;
@code{cl:require} on the above-mentioned implementations will delegate to @code{require-system}
and may load them as well.
But for code that you are actively developing, debugging, or otherwise modifying,
you should use @code{load-system}, so ASDF will pick on your modifications
and transitively re-build the modified files and everything that depends on them
(that the requested @var{system} itself depends on ---
ASDF itself never builds anything unless
it's an explicitly requested system or the dependencies thereof).
@end defun


@node Moving on,  , Convenience Functions, Using ASDF
1061 1062 1063 1064 1065 1066 1067 1068 1069 1070 1071 1072
@section Moving on

That's all you need to know to use ASDF to load systems written by others.
The rest of this manual deals with writing system definitions
for Common Lisp software you write yourself,
including how to extend ASDF to define new operation and component types.


@node Defining systems with defsystem, The object model of ASDF, Using ASDF, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Defining systems with defsystem

1073
This chapter describes how to use ASDF to define systems and develop
1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 1080 1081
software.


@menu
* The defsystem form::
* A more involved example::
* The defsystem grammar::
* Other code in .asd files::
1082
* The package-inferred-system extension::
1083 1084 1085 1086 1087
@end menu

@node  The defsystem form, A more involved example, Defining systems with defsystem, Defining systems with defsystem
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section The defsystem form
1088 1089 1090
@findex defsystem
@cindex asdf-user
@findex load-asd
1091 1092 1093 1094 1095

This section begins with an example of a system definition,
then gives the full grammar of @code{defsystem}.

Let's look at a simple system.
1096 1097 1098 1099
This is a complete file that should be saved as @file{hello-lisp.asd}
(in order that ASDF can find it
when ordered to operate on the system named @code{"hello-lisp"}).

1100
@lisp
1101
;; Usual Lisp comments are allowed here
1102 1103 1104

(defsystem "hello-lisp"
  :description "hello-lisp: a sample Lisp system."
1105
  :version "0.0.1"
1106 1107
  :author "Joe User <joe@@example.com>"
  :licence "Public Domain"
1108
  :depends-on ("optima.ppcre" "command-line-arguments")
1109 1110 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115 1116 1117 1118 1119 1120
  :components ((:file "packages")
               (:file "macros" :depends-on ("packages"))
               (:file "hello" :depends-on ("macros"))))
@end lisp

Some notes about this example:

@itemize

@item
The @code{defsystem} form defines a system named @code{hello-lisp}
that contains three source files:
1121
@file{packages.lisp}, @file{macros.lisp} and @file{hello.lisp}.
1122 1123

@item
1124 1125
The @file{.lisp} suffix is implicit for Lisp source files.
The source files are located in the same directory
1126 1127 1128 1129 1130 1131 1132 1133 1134
as the @code{.asd} file with the system definition.
@c FIXME: the following should live somewhere, but not in the quickstart
@c page. [2014/05/03:rpg]
@c ASDF resolves symbolic links (or Windows shortcuts)
@c before loading the system definition file and
@c stores its location in the resulting system@footnote{
@c It is possible, though almost never necessary, to override this behaviour.}.
@c This is a good thing because the user can move the system sources
@c without having to edit the system definition.
1135

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@c FIXME: The first example system should probably use just :serial T.
@item
The file @file{macros} depends on @file{packages}
(presumably because the package it's in is defined in @file{packages}),
and the file @file{hello} depends on @file{macros}
(and hence, transitively on @file{packages}).
This means that ASDF will compile and load @file{packages} then @file{macros}
before starting the compilation of file @file{hello}.

@item
This example system has external dependencies on two other systems,
@code{optima.ppcre} (that provides a friendly interface to matching regular expressions),
and @code{command-line-arguments} (that provides a way to parse arguments passed from the shell command line).
To use this system, ASDF must be configured to find installed copies of these systems;
it will load them before it tries to compile and load @code{hello-lisp}.

@item
This system also defines a bunch of metadata.
While it is optional to define these fields
(and other fields like @code{:bug-tracker}, @code{:mailto}, @code{:long-name},
@code{:long-description}, @code{:source-control}),
it is strongly recommended to define the fields @code{:description}, @code{:version}, @code{:author}, and @code{:licence},
especially if you intend your software to be eventually included in Quicklisp.

1160 1161 1162
@c FIXME: Should have cross-reference to "Version specifiers" in the
@c defsystem grammar, but the cross-referencing is so broken by
@c insufficient node breakdown that I have not put one in.
1163 1164
@c FIXME: this is way too detailed for the first example!
@c move it!
1165
@item
1166
Make sure you know how the @code{:version} numbers will be parsed!
1167
Only period-separated non-negative integers are accepted at present.
1168
See below Version specifiers in @ref{The defsystem grammar}.
1169 1170 1171 1172 1173 1174 1175 1176 1177 1178

@item
This file contains a single form, the @code{defsystem} declaration.
No @code{in-package} form, no @code{asdf:} package prefix, no nothing.
Just the one naked @code{defsystem} form.
This is what we recommend.
More complex system definition files are possible with arbitrary Lisp code,
but we recommend that you keep it simple if you can.
This will make your system definitions more robust and more future-proof.

1179 1180
@cindex :version

1181 1182
@end itemize

1183 1184 1185 1186 1187 1188
This is all you need to know to define simple systems.
The next example is much more involved, to give you a glimpse of how you can do more complex things.
However, since it's ultimately arbitrary Lisp code, there is no bottom to the rabbit hole.
@c FIXME: divide the next example into many examples, to introduce fewer concepts at once.


1189 1190 1191
@node  A more involved example, The defsystem grammar, The defsystem form, Defining systems with defsystem
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section A more involved example
1192
@findex defsystem
1193 1194 1195 1196 1197

Let's illustrate some more involved uses of @code{defsystem} via a
slightly convoluted example:

@lisp
1198 1199
(in-package :asdf-user)

1200
(defsystem "foo"
1201 1202 1203 1204 1205 1206 1207 1208 1209 1210 1211 1212 1213 1214 1215 1216 1217 1218 1219 1220 1221
  :version (:read-file-form "variables" :at (3 2))
  :components
  ((:file "package")
   (:file "variables" :depends-on ("package"))
   (:module "mod"
     :depends-on ("package")
     :serial t
     :components ((:file "utils")
                  (:file "reader")
                  (:file "cooker")
                  (:static-file "data.raw"))
     :output-files (compile-op (o c) (list "data.cooked"))
     :perform (compile-op :after (o c)
        (cook-data
         :in (component-pathname (find-component c "data.raw"))
         :out (first (output-files o c)))))
   (:file "foo" :depends-on ("mod"))))

(defmethod action-description
    ((o compile-op) (c (eql (find-component "foo" "mod"))))
  "cooking data")
1222 1223
@end lisp

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