asdf.texinfo 169 KB
Newer Older
1
2
\input texinfo          @c -*- texinfo -*-
@c %**start of header
3
@setfilename asdf.info
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
4
@settitle ASDF Manual
5
6
@c %**end of header

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
@c We use @&key, etc to escape & from TeX in lambda lists --
@c so we need to define them for info as well.
@macro &allow-other-keys
&allow-other-keys
@end macro
@macro &optional
&optional
@end macro
@macro &rest
&rest
@end macro
@macro &key
&key
@end macro
@macro &body
&body
@end macro
24
25
26
27
28
29
@macro &curly
{
@end macro
@macro &ylruc
}
@end macro
30

31
32
33
@c for install-info
@dircategory Software development
@direntry
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
34
* asdf: (asdf).           Another System Definition Facility (for Common Lisp)
35
36
@end direntry

37
@copying
38
39
This manual describes ASDF, a system definition facility
for Common Lisp programs and libraries.
40

41
42
43
You can find the latest version of this manual at
@url{http://common-lisp.net/project/asdf/asdf.html}.

44
ASDF Copyright @copyright{} 2001-2013 Daniel Barlow and contributors.
45

46
This manual Copyright @copyright{} 2001-2013 Daniel Barlow and contributors.
47

48
This manual revised @copyright{} 2009-2013 Robert P. Goldman and Francois-Rene Rideau.
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
``Software''), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be
included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS'', WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE
LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION
OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

@end copying



@titlepage
74
@title ASDF: Another System Definition Facility
75

76
77
78
79
80
@c The following two commands start the copyright page.
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@insertcopying
@end titlepage
81

82
83
84
85
86
87
88
@c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
@contents

@c -------------------

@ifnottex

89
@node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
90
@top asdf: another system definition facility
91

92
93
94
@insertcopying

@menu
95
96
* Introduction::
* Loading ASDF::
97
98
* Configuring ASDF::
* Using ASDF::
99
100
* Defining systems with defsystem::
* The object model of ASDF::
101
* Controlling where ASDF searches for systems::
102
103
104
105
106
* Controlling where ASDF saves compiled files::
* Error handling::
* Miscellaneous additional functionality::
* Getting the latest version::
* FAQ::
107
* TODO list::
108
109
110
111
* Inspiration::
* Concept Index::
* Function and Class Index::
* Variable Index::
112

113
114
@c @detailmenu
@c  --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
115

116
@c Defining systems with defsystem
117

118
119
120
121
@c * The defsystem form::
@c * A more involved example::
@c * The defsystem grammar::
@c * Other code in .asd files::
122

123
@c The object model of ASDF
124

125
126
@c * Operations::
@c * Components::
127
@c * Functions::
128

129
@c Operations
130

131
132
@c * Predefined operations of ASDF::
@c * Creating new operations::
133

134
@c Components
135

136
137
138
@c * Common attributes of components::
@c * Pre-defined subclasses of component::
@c * Creating new component types::
139

140
@c properties
141

142
143
@c * Pre-defined subclasses of component::
@c * Creating new component types::
144

145
@c @end detailmenu
146
147
148
149
150
151
@end menu

@end ifnottex

@c -------------------

152
@node Introduction, Loading ASDF, Top, Top
153
154
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Introduction
Robert P. Goldman's avatar
Robert P. Goldman committed
155
156
157
158
159
160
@cindex ASDF-related features
@vindex *features*
@cindex Testing for ASDF
@cindex ASDF versions
@cindex :asdf
@cindex :asdf2
161
@cindex :asdf3
162

163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
ASDF is Another System Definition Facility:
a tool for specifying how systems of Common Lisp software
are comprised of components (sub-systems and files),
and how to operate on these components in the right order
so that they can be compiled, loaded, tested, etc.

ASDF presents three faces:
one for users of Common Lisp software who want to reuse other people's code,
one for writers of Common Lisp software who want to specify how to build their systems,
one for implementers of Common Lisp extensions who want to extend the build system.
Robert P. Goldman's avatar
Robert P. Goldman committed
173
@xref{Using ASDF,,Loading a system},
174
to learn how to use ASDF to load a system.
Robert P. Goldman's avatar
Robert P. Goldman committed
175
@xref{Defining systems with defsystem},
176
to learn how to define a system of your own.
177
@xref{The object model of ASDF}, for a description of
Robert P. Goldman's avatar
Robert P. Goldman committed
178
the ASDF internals and how to extend ASDF.
179

Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
180
@emph{Nota Bene}:
181
182
183
We have released ASDF 2.000 on May 31st 2010,
and ASDF 3.0 on January 31st 2013.
Releases of ASDF 2 and later have since then been included
184
185
186
in all actively maintained CL implementations that used to bundle ASDF 1,
plus some implementations that didn't use to,
and has been made to work with all actively used CL implementations and a few more.
187
@xref{FAQ,,``What has changed between ASDF 1 and ASDF 2?''}.
188
189
190
191
Furthermore, it is possible to upgrade from ASDF 1 to ASDF 2 or ASDF 3 on the fly.
For this reason, we have stopped supporting ASDF 1 and ASDF 2.
If you are using ASDF 1 or ASDF 2 and are experiencing any kind of issues or limitations,
we recommend you upgrade to ASDF 3
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
--- and we explain how to do that. @xref{Loading ASDF}.

Also note that ASDF is not to be confused with ASDF-Install.
ASDF-Install is not part of ASDF, but a separate piece of software.
ASDF-Install is also unmaintained and obsolete.
We recommend you use Quicklisp instead,
which works great and is being actively maintained.
If you want to download software from version control instead of tarballs,
so you may more easily modify it, we recommend clbuild.
201

202

203
@node Loading ASDF, Configuring ASDF, Introduction, Top
204
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
205
@chapter Loading ASDF
206
@vindex *central-registry*
207
@cindex link farm
208
@findex load-system
209
@findex require-system
210
211
212
213
214
@findex compile-system
@findex test-system
@cindex system directory designator
@findex operate
@findex oos
215

216
@c @menu
217
@c * Installing ASDF::
218
219
220
@c @end menu


221
222
@section Loading a pre-installed ASDF

223
Most recent Lisp implementations include a copy of ASDF 2, and soon ASDF 3.
224
225
226
You can usually load this copy using Common Lisp's @code{require} function:

@lisp
227
(require "asdf")
228
229
@end lisp

Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
230
231
As of the writing of this manual,
the following implementations provide ASDF 2 this way:
232
abcl allegro ccl clisp cmucl ecl lispworks mkcl sbcl xcl.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
233
The following implementation doesn't provide it yet but will in an upcoming release:
234
scl.
235
236
The following implementations are obsolete, not actively maintained,
and most probably will never bundle it:
237
cormanlisp gcl genera mcl.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
238

239
If the implementation you are using doesn't provide ASDF 2 or ASDF 3,
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
240
241
242
243
see @pxref{Loading ASDF,,Loading an otherwise installed ASDF} below.
If that implementation is still actively maintained,
you may also send a bug report to your Lisp vendor and complain
about their failing to provide ASDF.
244

245
246
247
248
NB: all implementations except clisp also accept
@code{(require "ASDF")}, @code{(require 'asdf)} and @code{(require :asdf)}.
For portability's sake, you probably want to use @code{(require "asdf")}.

249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272

@section Checking whether ASDF is loaded

To check whether ASDF is properly loaded in your current Lisp image,
you can run this form:

@lisp
(asdf:asdf-version)
@end lisp

If it returns a string,
that is the version of ASDF that is currently installed.

If it raises an error,
then either ASDF is not loaded, or
you are using an old version of ASDF.

You can check whether an old version is loaded
by checking if the ASDF package is present.
The form below will allow you to programmatically determine
whether a recent version is loaded, an old version is loaded,
or none at all:

@lisp
273
(when (find-package :asdf)
274
275
276
277
  (let ((ver (symbol-value (or (find-symbol (string :*asdf-version*) :asdf)
                               (find-symbol (string :*asdf-revision*) :asdf)))))
    (etypecase ver
      (string ver)
278
279
      (cons (with-output-to-string (s)
              (loop for (n . m) on ver do (princ n s) (when m (princ "." s)))))
280
      (null "1.0"))))
281
282
283
@end lisp

If it returns @code{NIL} then ASDF is not installed.
284
285
286
Otherwise it should return a string.
If it returns @code{"1.0"}, then it can actually be
any version before 1.77 or so, or some buggy variant of 1.x.
287

Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
288
289
290
291
If you are experiencing problems with ASDF,
please try upgrading to the latest released version,
using the method below,
before you contact us and raise an issue.
292
293


294
295
@section Upgrading ASDF

296
If your implementation provides ASDF 3 or later,
297
298
299
300
301
you only need to @code{(require "asdf")}:
ASDF will automatically look whether an updated version of itself is available
amongst the regularly configured systems, before it compiles anything else.
See @pxref{Configuring ASDF} below.

302
If your implementation does provide ASDF 2 or later,
303
but not ASDF 3 or later,
304
and you want to upgrade to a more recent version,
305
306
307
you need to install and configure your ASDF as above,
and additionally, you need to explicitly tell ASDF to load itself,
right after you require your implementation's old ASDF 2:
308
309

@lisp
310
(require "asdf")
311
312
313
314
(asdf:load-system :asdf)
@end lisp

If on the other hand, your implementation only provides an old ASDF,
315
316
317
you will require a special configuration step and an old-style loading.
Take special attention to not omit the trailing directory separator
@code{/} at the end of your pathname:
318
319

@lisp
320
(require "asdf")
321
322
323
324
(push #p"@var{/path/to/new/asdf/}" asdf:*central-registry*)
(asdf:oos 'asdf:load-op :asdf)
@end lisp

325
Note that ASDF 1 won't redirect its output files,
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
or at least won't do it according to your usual ASDF 2 configuration.
You therefore need write access on the directory
where you install the new ASDF,
and make sure you're not using it
for multiple mutually incompatible implementations.
At worst, you may have to have multiple copies of the new ASDF,
e.g. one per implementation installation, to avoid clashes.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
333
334
335
Note that to our knowledge all implementations that provide ASDF
provide ASDF 2 in their latest release, so
you may want to upgrade your implementation rather than go through that hoop.
336

337
338
339
340
341
Finally, if you are using an unmaintained implementation
that does not provide ASDF at all,
see @pxref{Loading ASDF,,Loading an otherwise installed ASDF} below.

Note that there are some limitations to upgrading ASDF:
342
343
@itemize
@item
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
344
Previously loaded ASDF extension becomes invalid, and will need to be reloaded.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
345
This applies to e.g. CFFI-Grovel, or to hacks used by ironclad, etc.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
346
347
Since it isn't possible to automatically detect what extensions are present
that need to be invalidated,
348
ASDF will actually invalidate all previously loaded systems
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
349
when it is loaded on top of a different ASDF version,
350
351
starting with ASDF 2.014.8 (as far as releases go, 2.015);
and it will automatically attempt this self-upgrade as its very first step
352
starting with ASDF 3.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
353

354
@item
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
355
356
357
For this an many other reasons,
it important reason to load, configure and upgrade ASDF (if needed)
as one of the very first things done by your build and startup scripts.
358
Until all implementations provide ASDF 3 or later,
359
it is safer if you upgrade ASDF and its extensions as a special step
360
at the very beginning of whatever script you are running,
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
361
362
363
364
before you start using ASDF to load anything else;
even afterwards, it is still a good idea, to avoid having to
load and reload code twice as it gets invalidated.

365
@item
366
Until all implementations provide ASDF 3 or later,
367
it is unsafe to upgrade ASDF as part of loading a system
368
369
370
371
that depends on a more recent version of ASDF,
since the new one might shadow the old one while the old one is running,
and the running old one will be confused
when extensions are loaded into the new one.
372
In the meantime, we recommend that your systems should @emph{not} specify
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
@code{:depends-on (:asdf)}, or @code{:depends-on ((:version :asdf "2.010"))},
but instead that they check that a recent enough ASDF is installed,
with such code as:
@example
(unless (or #+asdf2 (asdf:version-satisfies
                     (asdf:asdf-version) *required-asdf-version*))
  (error "FOO requires ASDF ~A or later." *required-asdf-version*))
@end example
381
@item
382
Until all implementations provide ASDF 3 or later,
383
384
385
386
387
it is unsafe for a system to transitively depend on ASDF
and not directly depend on ASDF;
if any of the system you use either depends-on asdf,
system-depends-on asdf, or transitively does,
you should also do as well.
388
389
@end itemize

390

391
392
393
@section Loading an otherwise installed ASDF

If your implementation doesn't include ASDF,
394
395
if for some reason the upgrade somehow fails,
does not or cannot apply to your case,
396
397
398
399
400
401
you will have to install the file @file{asdf.lisp}
somewhere and load it with:

@lisp
(load "/path/to/your/installed/asdf.lisp")
@end lisp
402

403
The single file @file{asdf.lisp} is all you normally need to use ASDF.
404

405
You can extract this file from latest release tarball on the
406
@url{http://common-lisp.net/project/asdf/,ASDF website}.
407
If you are daring and willing to report bugs, you can get
408
the latest and greatest version of ASDF from its git repository.
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
@xref{Getting the latest version}.

For maximum convenience you might want to have ASDF loaded
whenever you start your Lisp implementation,
for example by loading it from the startup script or dumping a custom core
--- check your Lisp implementation's manual for details.

416

417
418
@node Configuring ASDF, Using ASDF, Loading ASDF, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426

@chapter Configuring ASDF

@section Configuring ASDF to find your systems

So it may compile and load your systems, ASDF must be configured to find
the @file{.asd} files that contain system definitions.

427
Since ASDF 2, the preferred way to configure where ASDF finds your systems is
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
428
429
430
the @code{source-registry} facility,
fully described in its own chapter of this manual.
@xref{Controlling where ASDF searches for systems}.
431
432
433

The default location for a user to install Common Lisp software is under
@file{~/.local/share/common-lisp/source/}.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
434
435
If you install software there (it can be a symlink),
you don't need further configuration.
436
437
If you're installing software yourself at a location that isn't standard,
you have to tell ASDF where you installed it. See below.
438
If you're using some tool to install software (e.g. Quicklisp),
439
440
441
the authors of that tool should already have configured ASDF.

The simplest way to add a path to your search path,
442
say @file{/home/luser/.asd-link-farm/}
443
444
is to create the directory
@file{~/.config/common-lisp/source-registry.conf.d/}
445
446
and there create a file with any name of your choice,
and with the type @file{conf},
447
for instance @file{42-asd-link-farm.conf}
448
449
containing the line:

450
@kbd{(:directory "/home/luser/.asd-link-farm/")}
451

452
If you want all the subdirectories under @file{/home/luser/lisp/}
453
454
to be recursively scanned for @file{.asd} files, instead use:

455
@kbd{(:tree "/home/luser/lisp/")}
456
457
458
459

Note that your Operating System distribution or your system administrator
may already have configured system-managed libraries for you.

460
461
462
463
464
The required @file{.conf} extension allows you to have disabled files
or editor backups (ending in @file{~}), and works portably
(for instance, it is a pain to allow both empty and non-empty extension on CLISP).
Excluded are files the name of which start with a @file{.} character.
It is customary to start the filename with two digits
465
466
467
468
469
that specify the order in which the directories will be scanned.

ASDF will automatically read your configuration
the first time you try to find a system.
You can reset the source-registry configuration with:
470

471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
@lisp
(asdf:clear-source-registry)
@end lisp

And you probably should do so before you dump your Lisp image,
if the configuration may change
between the machine where you save it at the time you save it
and the machine you resume it at the time you resume it.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
479
480
Actually, you should use @code{(asdf:clear-configuration)}
before you dump your Lisp image, which includes the above.
481
482


483
@section Configuring ASDF to find your systems --- old style
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495

The old way to configure ASDF to find your systems is by
@code{push}ing directory pathnames onto the variable
@code{asdf:*central-registry*}.

You must configure this variable between the time you load ASDF
and the time you first try to use it.
Loading and configuring ASDF presumably happen
as part of some initialization script that builds or starts
your Common Lisp software system.
(For instance, some SBCL users used to put it in their @file{~/.sbclrc}.)

496
The @code{asdf:*central-registry*} is empty by default in ASDF 2 or ASDF 3,
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
but is still supported for compatibility with ASDF 1.
When used, it takes precedence over the above source-registry@footnote{
It is possible to further customize
the system definition file search.
That's considered advanced use, and covered later:
search forward for
@code{*system-definition-search-functions*}.
@xref{Defining systems with defsystem}.}.

For instance, if you wanted ASDF to find the @file{.asd} file
@file{/home/me/src/foo/foo.asd} your initialization script
508
could after it loads ASDF with @code{(require "asdf")}
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
configure it with:

@lisp
(push "/home/me/src/foo/" asdf:*central-registry*)
@end lisp

Note the trailing slash: when searching for a system,
ASDF will evaluate each entry of the central registry
and coerce the result to a pathname@footnote{
ASDF will indeed call @code{EVAL} on each entry.
It will also skip entries that evaluate to @code{NIL}.

Strings and pathname objects are self-evaluating,
in which case the @code{EVAL} step does nothing;
but you may push arbitrary SEXP onto the central registry,
that will be evaluated to compute e.g. things that depend
on the value of shell variables or the identity of the user.

The variable @code{asdf:*central-registry*} is thus a list of
``system directory designators''.
A @dfn{system directory designator} is a form
which will be evaluated whenever a system is to be found,
and must evaluate to a directory to look in.
By ``directory'' here, we mean
``designator for a pathname with a supplied DIRECTORY component''.
}
at which point the presence of the trailing directory name separator
is necessary to tell Lisp that you're discussing a directory
rather than a file.

Typically, however, there are a lot of @file{.asd} files, and
a common idiom was to have to put
a bunch of @emph{symbolic links} to @file{.asd} files
in a common directory
and push @emph{that} directory (the ``link farm'')
to the
@code{asdf:*central-registry*}
instead of pushing each of the many involved directories
to the @code{asdf:*central-registry*}.
ASDF knows how to follow such @emph{symlinks}
to the actual file location when resolving the paths of system components
550
551
(on Windows, you can use Windows shortcuts instead of POSIX symlinks;
if you try aliases under MacOS, we are curious to hear about your experience).
552
553
554

For example, if @code{#p"/home/me/cl/systems/"} (note the trailing slash)
is a member of @code{*central-registry*}, you could set up the
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
system @var{foo} for loading with asdf with the following
commands at the shell:

@example
$ cd /home/me/cl/systems/
$ ln -s ~/src/foo/foo.asd .
@end example

563
564
565
566
This old style for configuring ASDF is not recommended for new users,
but it is supported for old users, and for users who want to programmatically
control what directories are added to the ASDF search path.

567

568
@section Configuring where ASDF stores object files
569
@findex clear-output-translations
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581

ASDF lets you configure where object files will be stored.
Sensible defaults are provided and
you shouldn't normally have to worry about it.

This allows the same source code repository may be shared
between several versions of several Common Lisp implementations,
between several users using different compilation options
and without write privileges on shared source directories, etc.
This also allows to keep source directories uncluttered
by plenty of object files.

582
Starting with ASDF 2, the @code{asdf-output-translations} facility
583
was added to ASDF itself, that controls where object files will be stored.
584
This facility is fully described in a chapter of this manual,
585
@ref{Controlling where ASDF saves compiled files}.
586
587
588
589
590
591

The simplest way to add a translation to your search path,
say from @file{/foo/bar/baz/quux/}
to @file{/where/i/want/my/fasls/}
is to create the directory
@file{~/.config/common-lisp/asdf-output-translations.conf.d/}
592
and there create a file with any name of your choice and the type @file{conf},
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
for instance @file{42-bazquux.conf}
containing the line:

@kbd{("/foo/bar/baz/quux/" "/where/i/want/my/fasls/")}

To disable output translations for source under a given directory,
say @file{/toto/tata/}
you can create a file @file{40-disable-toto.conf}
with the line:

@kbd{("/toto/tata/")}

To wholly disable output translations for all directories,
you can create a file @file{00-disable.conf}
with the line:

609
@kbd{(t t)}
610
611
612
613
614

Note that your Operating System distribution or your system administrator
may already have configured translations for you.
In absence of any configuration, the default is to redirect everything
under an implementation-dependent subdirectory of @file{~/.cache/common-lisp/}.
615
@xref{Controlling where ASDF searches for systems}, for full details.
616

617
618
619
620
621
The required @file{.conf} extension allows you to have disabled files
or editor backups (ending in @file{~}), and works portably
(for instance, it is a pain to allow both empty and non-empty extension on CLISP).
Excluded are files the name of which start with a @file{.} character.
It is customary to start the filename with two digits
622
623
624
625
626
that specify the order in which the directories will be scanned.

ASDF will automatically read your configuration
the first time you try to find a system.
You can reset the source-registry configuration with:
627
628

@lisp
629
(asdf:clear-output-translations)
630
631
@end lisp

632
633
634
635
And you probably should do so before you dump your Lisp image,
if the configuration may change
between the machine where you save it at the time you save it
and the machine you resume it at the time you resume it.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
636
637
(Once again, you should use @code{(asdf:clear-configuration)}
before you dump your Lisp image, which includes the above.)
638

639
Finally note that before ASDF 2,
640
641
642
643
other ASDF add-ons offered the same functionality,
each in subtly different and incompatible ways:
ASDF-Binary-Locations, cl-launch, common-lisp-controller.
ASDF-Binary-Locations is now not needed anymore and should not be used.
644
cl-launch 3.000 and common-lisp-controller 7.2 have been updated
645
to just delegate this functionality to ASDF.
646

647
648
@node Using ASDF, Defining systems with defsystem, Configuring ASDF, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
649

650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676

@section Resetting Configuration

When you dump and restore an image, or when you tweak your configuration,
you may want to reset the ASDF configuration.
For that you may use the following function:

@defun clear-configuration
   undoes any ASDF configuration,
   regarding source-registry or output-translations.
@end defun

If you use SBCL, CMUCL or SCL, you may use this snippet
so that the ASDF configuration be cleared automatically as you dump an image:

@example
#+(or cmu sbcl scl)
(pushnew 'clear-configuration
         #+(or cmu scl) ext:*before-save-initializations*
         #+sbcl sb-ext:*save-hooks*)
@end example

For compatibility with all Lisp implementations, however,
you might want instead your build script to explicitly call
@code{(asdf:clear-configuration)} at an appropriate moment before dumping.


677
678
679
680
681
682
@chapter Using ASDF

@section Loading a system

The system @var{foo} is loaded (and compiled, if necessary)
by evaluating the following Lisp form:
683
684

@example
685
(asdf:load-system :@var{foo})
686
687
@end example

688
On some implementations (namely recent versions of
689
690
ABCL, Allegro CL, Clozure CL, CMUCL, ECL, GNU CLISP,
LispWorks, MKCL, SBCL and XCL),
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
ASDF hooks into the @code{CL:REQUIRE} facility
and you can just use:

@example
(require :@var{foo})
@end example

698
699
In older versions of ASDF, you needed to use
@code{(asdf:oos 'asdf:load-op :@var{foo})}.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
700
If your ASDF is too old to provide @code{asdf:load-system} though
701
we recommend that you upgrade to ASDF 3.
702
@xref{Loading ASDF,,Loading an otherwise installed ASDF}.
703

704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
Note the name of a system is specified as a string or a symbol,
typically a keyword.
If a symbol (including a keyword), its name is taken and lowercased.
The name must be a suitable value for the @code{:name} initarg
to @code{make-pathname} in whatever filesystem the system is to be found.
The lower-casing-symbols behaviour is unconventional,
but was selected after some consideration.
Observations suggest that the type of systems we want to support
either have lowercase as customary case (unix, mac, windows)
or silently convert lowercase to uppercase (lpns),
so this makes more sense than attempting to use @code{:case :common},
which is reported not to work on some implementations

717

718
@section Other Operations
719

720
721
ASDF provides three commands for the most common system operations:
@code{load-system}, @code{compile-system} or @code{test-system}.
722
723
It also provides @code{require-system}, a version of @code{load-system}
that skips trying to update systems that are already loaded.
724

725
726
727
728
729
730
Because ASDF is an extensible system
for defining @emph{operations} on @emph{components},
it also provides a generic function @code{operate}
(which is usually abbreviated by @code{oos}).
You'll use @code{oos} whenever you want to do something beyond
compiling, loading and testing.
731

732
733
734
735
Output from ASDF and ASDF extensions are supposed to be sent
to the CL stream @code{*standard-output*},
and so rebinding that stream around calls to @code{asdf:operate}
should redirect all output from ASDF operations.
736

737
738
Reminder: before ASDF can operate on a system, however,
it must be able to find and load that system's definition.
739
@xref{Configuring ASDF,,Configuring ASDF to find your systems}.
740

741
742
743
744
745
746
747
For the advanced users, note that
@code{require-system} calls @code{load-system}
with keyword arguments @code{:force-not (loaded-systems)}.
@code{loaded-systems} returns a list of the names of loaded systems.
@code{load-system} applies @code{operate} with the operation from
@code{*load-system-operation*}, which by default is @code{load-op},
the system, and any provided keyword arguments.
748

749
750
751
752
753
@section Summary

To use ASDF:

@itemize
754
@item
755
Load ASDF itself into your Lisp image, either through
756
@code{(require "asdf")} or else through
757
@code{(load "/path/to/asdf.lisp")}.
758

759
@item
760
761
Make sure ASDF can find system definitions
thanks to proper source-registry configuration.
762

763
@item
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
764
Load a system with @code{(asdf:load-system :my-system)}
765
or use some other operation on some system of your choice.
766
767
768

@end itemize

769
@section Moving on
770

771
772
773
774
775
That's all you need to know to use ASDF to load systems written by others.
The rest of this manual deals with writing system definitions
for Common Lisp software you write yourself,
including how to extend ASDF to define new operation and component types.

776

777
@node Defining systems with defsystem, The object model of ASDF, Using ASDF, Top
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Defining systems with defsystem

This chapter describes how to use asdf to define systems and develop
software.


@menu
786
787
788
789
* The defsystem form::
* A more involved example::
* The defsystem grammar::
* Other code in .asd files::
790
791
792
793
794
795
@end menu

@node  The defsystem form, A more involved example, Defining systems with defsystem, Defining systems with defsystem
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section The defsystem form

796
797
798
799
800
801
Systems can be constructed programmatically
by instantiating components using @code{make-instance}.
Most of the time, however, it is much more practical to use
a static @code{defsystem} form.
This section begins with an example of a system definition,
then gives the full grammar of @code{defsystem}.
802

803
804
Let's look at a simple system.
This is a complete file that would
805
usually be saved as @file{hello-lisp.asd}:
806
807

@lisp
808
(in-package :asdf)
809

810
(defsystem "hello-lisp"
811
  :description "hello-lisp: a sample Lisp system."
812
  :version "0.2.1"
813
814
815
816
817
  :author "Joe User <joe@@example.com>"
  :licence "Public Domain"
  :components ((:file "packages")
               (:file "macros" :depends-on ("packages"))
               (:file "hello" :depends-on ("macros"))))
818
819
820
821
822
@end lisp

Some notes about this example:

@itemize
823
824

@item
825
826
827
828
The file starts with an @code{in-package} form
to use package @code{asdf}.
You could instead start your definition by using
a qualified name @code{asdf:defsystem}.
829

830
@item
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
If in addition to simply using @code{defsystem},
you are going to define functions,
create ASDF extension, globally bind symbols, etc.,
it is recommended that to avoid namespace pollution between systems,
you should create your own package for that purpose,
for instance replacing the above @code{(in-package :asdf)} with:

@lisp
(defpackage :foo-system
  (:use :cl :asdf))

(in-package :foo-system)
@end lisp
844
845

@item
846
847
848
The @code{defsystem} form defines a system named @code{hello-lisp}
that contains three source files:
@file{packages}, @file{macros} and @file{hello}.
849

850
851
852
853
854
855
856
@item
The file @file{macros} depends on @file{packages}
(presumably because the package it's in is defined in @file{packages}),
and the file @file{hello} depends on @file{macros}
(and hence, transitively on @file{packages}).
This means that ASDF will compile and load @file{packages} and @file{macros}
before starting the compilation of file @file{hello}.
857
858

@item
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
The files are located in the same directory
as the file with the system definition.
ASDF resolves symbolic links (or Windows shortcuts)
before loading the system definition file and
stores its location in the resulting system@footnote{
It is possible, though almost never necessary, to override this behaviour.}.
This is a good thing because the user can move the system sources
without having to edit the system definition.
867

868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
@c FIXME: Should have cross-reference to "Version specifiers" in the
@c defsystem grammar, but the cross-referencing is so broken by
@c insufficient node breakdown that I have not put one in.
@item
Make sure you know how the @code{:version} numbers will be parsed!  They
are parsed as period-separated lists of integers.  I.e., in the example,
@code{0.2.1} is to be interpreted, roughly speaking, as @code{(0 2 1)}.
In particular, version @code{0.2.1} is interpreted the same as
@code{0.0002.1} and is strictly version-less-than version @code{0.20.1},
even though the two are the same when interpreted as decimal fractions.
878
879
880
881
Instead of a string representing the version,
the @code{:version} argument can be an expression that is resolved to
such a string using the following trivial domain-specific language:
in addition to being a literal string, it can be an expression of the form
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
@code{(:read-file-form <pathname-or-string> :at <access-at-specifier>)},
which will be resolved by reading a form
in the specified pathname
(read as a subpathname of the current system if relative or a unix-namestring).
You may use an access-at specifier with the (optional) :at keyword,
by default the specifier is 0, meaning the first form is returned.

889
890
@cindex :version

891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
@end itemize

@node  A more involved example, The defsystem grammar, The defsystem form, Defining systems with defsystem
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section A more involved example

Let's illustrate some more involved uses of @code{defsystem} via a
slightly convoluted example:

@lisp
(defsystem "foo"
902
  :version "1.0.0"
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
  :components ((:module "mod"
                            :components ((:file "bar")
                                                  (:file"baz")
                                                  (:file "quux"))
                            :perform (compile-op :after (op c)
                                                  (do-something c))
                            :explain (compile-op :after (op c)
                                            (explain-something c)))
                         (:file "blah")))
912
913
@end lisp

914
915
916
917
918
919
920
The @code{:module} component named @code{"mod"} is a collection of three files,
which will be located in a subdirectory of the main code directory named
@file{mod} (this location can be overridden; see the discussion of the
@code{:pathname} option in @ref{The defsystem grammar}).

The method-form tokens provide a shorthand for defining methods on
particular components.  This part
921
922

@lisp
923
924
925
926
                :perform (compile-op :after (op c)
                          (do-something c))
                :explain (compile-op :after (op c)
                          (explain-something c))
927
928
929
930
931
932
@end lisp

has the effect of

@lisp
(defmethod perform :after ((op compile-op) (c (eql ...)))
933
           (do-something c))
934
(defmethod explain :after ((op compile-op) (c (eql ...)))
935
           (explain-something c))
936
937
@end lisp

938
where @code{...} is the component in question.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
939
In this case @code{...} would expand to something like
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956

@lisp
(find-component (find-system "foo") "mod")
@end lisp

For more details on the syntax of such forms, see @ref{The defsystem
grammar}.
For more details on what these methods do, @pxref{Operations} in
@ref{The object model of ASDF}.

@c The following plunge into the weeds is not appropriate in this
@c location. [2010/10/03:rpg]
@c note that although this also supports @code{:before} methods,
@c they may not do what you want them to ---
@c a @code{:before} method on perform @code{((op compile-op) (c (eql ...)))}
@c will run after all the dependencies and sub-components have been processed,
@c but before the component in question has been compiled.
957

958
@node  The defsystem grammar, Other code in .asd files, A more involved example, Defining systems with defsystem
959
960
961
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section The defsystem grammar

962
963
964
@c FIXME: @var typesetting not consistently used here.  We should either expand
@c its use to everywhere, or we should kill it everywhere.

965

966
@example
967
968
system-definition := ( defsystem system-designator @var{system-option}* )

969
970
system-option := :defsystem-depends-on system-list
                 | :weakly-depends-on @var{system-list}
971
                 | :class class-name (see discussion below)
972
973
974
975
976
                 | module-option
                 | option

module-option := :components component-list
                 | :serial [ t | nil ]
977

Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
978
option :=
979
        | :pathname pathname-specifier
980
        | :default-component-class class-name
981
        | :perform method-form
982
        | :explain method-form
983
        | :output-files method-form
984
        | :operation-done-p method-form
985
        | :if-feature feature-expression
986
987
        | :depends-on ( @var{dependency-def}* )
        | :in-order-to ( @var{dependency}+ )
988

989

990
991
system-list := ( @var{simple-component-name}* )

992
component-list := ( @var{component-def}* )
993

994
component-def  := ( component-type simple-component-name @var{option}* )
995

996
component-type := :module | :file | :static-file | other-component-type
997

998
other-component-type := symbol-by-name (@pxref{The defsystem grammar,,Component types})
999

Gary King's avatar
Gary King committed
1000
1001
1002
1003
dependency-def := simple-component-name
               | ( :feature name )
               | ( :version simple-component-name version-specifier)

1004
1005
dependency := (dependent-op @var{requirement}+)
requirement := (required-op @var{required-component}+)
1006
1007
1008
             | (feature feature-name)
dependent-op := operation-name
required-op := operation-name | feature
Gary King's avatar
Gary King committed
1009
1010
1011

simple-component-name := string
                      |  symbol
1012

1013
1014
pathname-specifier := pathname | string | symbol

1015
method-form := (operation-name qual lambda-list @&rest body)
1016
qual := method qualifier
1017
1018

component-dep-fail-option := :fail | :try-next | :ignore
1019
1020
1021

feature-expression := keyword | (:and @var{feature-expression}*)
                      | (:or @var{feature-expression}*) | (:not @var{feature-expression})
1022
@end example
1023

1024

1025
1026
@subsection Component names

1027
1028
Component names (@code{simple-component-name})
may be either strings or symbols.
1029

1030
@subsection Component types
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037

Component type names, even if expressed as keywords, will be looked up
by name in the current package and in the asdf package, if not found in
the current package.  So a component type @code{my-component-type}, in
the current package @code{my-system-asd} can be specified as
@code{:my-component-type}, or @code{my-component-type}.

1038
1039
1040
@code{system} and its subclasses are @emph{not}
allowed as component types for such children components.

1041
1042
@subsection System class names

1043
1044
1045
1046
A system class name will be looked up
in the same way as a Component type (see above),
except that only @code{system} and its subclasses are allowed.
Typically, one will not need to specify a system
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
class name, unless using a non-standard system class defined in some
ASDF extension, typically loaded through @code{DEFSYSTEM-DEPENDS-ON},
see below.  For such class names in the ASDF package, we recommend that
the @code{:class} option be specified using a keyword symbol, such as

@example
:class :MY-NEW-SYSTEM-SUBCLASS
@end example

This practice will ensure that package name conflicts are avoided.
Otherwise, the symbol @code{MY-NEW-SYSTEM-SUBCLASS} will be read into
the current package @emph{before} it has been exported from the ASDF
extension loaded by @code{:defsystem-depends-on}, causing a name
conflict in the current package.

1062
@subsection Defsystem depends on
1063
@cindex :defsystem-depends-on
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070

The @code{:defsystem-depends-on} option to @code{defsystem} allows the
programmer to specify another ASDF-defined system or set of systems that
must be loaded @emph{before} the system definition is processed.
Typically this is used to load an ASDF extension that is used in the
system definition.

1071
1072
1073
@subsection Weakly depends on 
@cindex :weakly-depends-on

1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
We do @emph{NOT} recommend you use this feature.
If you are tempted to write a system @var{foo}
that weakly-depends-on a system @var{bar},
we recommend that you should instead
write system @var{foo} in a parametric way,
and offer some special variable and/or some hook to specialize its behavior;
then you should write a system @var{foo+bar}
that does the hooking of things together.

The (deprecated) @code{:weakly-depends-on} option to @code{defsystem}
allows the programmer to specify another ASDF-defined system or set of systems
that ASDF should @emph{try} to load,
but need not load in order to be successful.
Typically this is used if there are a number of systems
that, if present, could provide additional functionality,
but which are not necessary for basic function.
1090

1091
1092
1093
1094
Currently, although it is specified to be an option only to @code{defsystem},
this option is accepted at any component, but it probably
only makes sense at the @code{defsystem} level.
Programmers are cautioned not
1095
1096
1097
to use this component option except at the @code{defsystem} level, as
this anomalous behavior may be removed without warning.

1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
Finally, you might look into the @code{asdf-system-connections} extension,
that will let you define additional code to be loaded
when two systems are simultaneously loaded.
It may or may not be considered good style, but at least it can be used
in a way that has deterministic behavior independent of load order,
unlike @code{weakly-depends-on}.


1106
@subsection Pathname specifiers
1107
@cindex pathname specifiers
1108

1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
A pathname specifier (@code{pathname-specifier})
may be a pathname, a string or a symbol.
When no pathname specifier is given for a component,
which is the usual case, the component name itself is used.

If a string is given, which is the usual case,
the string will be interpreted as a Unix-style pathname
where @code{/} characters will be interpreted as directory separators.
Usually, Unix-style relative pathnames are used
(i.e. not starting with @code{/}, as opposed to absolute pathnames);
they are relative to the path of the parent component.
Finally, depending on the @code{component-type},
the pathname may be interpreted as either a file or a directory,
and if it's a file,
a file type may be added corresponding to the @code{component-type},
or else it will be extracted from the string itself (if applicable).

For instance, the @code{component-type} @code{:module}
wants a directory pathname, and so a string @code{"foo/bar"}
will be interpreted as the pathname @file{#p"foo/bar/"}.
On the other hand, the @code{component-type} @code{:file}
wants a file of type @code{lisp}, and so a string @code{"foo/bar"}
will be interpreted as the pathname @file{#p"foo/bar.lisp"},
and a string @code{"foo/bar.quux"}
will be interpreted as the pathname @file{#p"foo/bar.quux.lisp"}.
Finally, the @code{component-type} @code{:static-file}
wants a file without specifying a type, and so a string @code{"foo/bar"}
will be interpreted as the pathname @file{#p"foo/bar"},
and a string @code{"foo/bar.quux"}
will be interpreted as the pathname @file{#p"foo/bar.quux"}.

1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
ASDF does not interpret the string @code{".."} to designate the parent
directory.  This string will be passed through to the underlying
operating system for interpretation.  We @emph{believe} that this will
work on all platforms where ASDF is deployed, but do not guarantee this
behavior.  A pathname object with a relative directory component of
@code{:up} or @code{:back} is the only guaranteed way to specify a
parent directory.

1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
If a symbol is given, it will be translated into a string,
and downcased in the process.
The downcasing of symbols is unconventional,
but was selected after some consideration.
Observations suggest that the type of systems we want to support
either have lowercase as customary case (Unix, Mac, windows)
or silently convert lowercase to uppercase (lpns),
so this makes more sense than attempting to use @code{:case :common}
as argument to @code{make-pathname},
which is reported not to work on some implementations.

1159
Pathname objects may be given to override the path for a component.
1160
1161
Such objects are typically specified using reader macros such as @code{#p}
or @code{#.(make-pathname ...)}.
1162
1163
1164
Note however, that @code{#p...} is a shorthand for @code{#.(parse-namestring ...)}
and that the behavior of @code{parse-namestring} is completely non-portable,
unless you are using Common Lisp @code{logical-pathname}s
1165
(@pxref{The defsystem grammar,,Using logical pathnames}, below).
1166
1167
1168
1169
Pathnames made with @code{#.(make-pathname ...)}
can usually be done more easily with the string syntax above.
The only case that you really need a pathname object is to override
the component-type default file type for a given component.
1170
Therefore, pathname objects should only rarely be used.
1171
Unhappily, ASDF 1 didn't properly support
1172
1173
parsing component names as strings specifying paths with directories,
and the cumbersome @code{#.(make-pathname ...)} syntax had to be used.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
1174
1175
An alternative to @code{#.} read-time evaluation is to use
@code{(eval `(defsystem ... ,pathname ...))}.
1176

Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
1177
Note that when specifying pathname objects,
1178
1179
1180
ASDF does not do any special interpretation of the pathname
influenced by the component type, unlike the procedure for
pathname-specifying strings.
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
On the one hand, you have to be careful to provide a pathname that correctly
fulfills whatever constraints are required from that component type
(e.g. naming a directory or a file with appropriate type);
on the other hand, you can circumvent the file type that would otherwise
be forced upon you if you were specifying a string.
1186

1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
@subsection Version specifiers
@cindex version specifiers
@cindex :version

Version specifiers are parsed as period-separated lists of integers.  I.e., in the example,
@code{0.2.1} is to be interpreted, roughly speaking, as @code{(0 2 1)}.
In particular, version @code{0.2.1} is interpreted the same as
@code{0.0002.1} and is strictly version-less-than version @code{0.20.1},
even though the two are the same when interpreted as decimal fractions.

System definers are encouraged to use version identifiers of the form
@var{x}.@var{y}.@var{z} for major version, minor version (compatible
API) and patch level.

@xref{Common attributes of components}.

1203

1204
@subsection Using logical pathnames
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
1205
@cindex logical pathnames
1206

1207
1208
1209
1210
We do not generally recommend the use of logical pathnames,
especially not so to newcomers to Common Lisp.
However, we do support the use of logical pathnames by old timers,
when such is their preference.
1211

1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
To use logical pathnames,
you will have to provide a pathname object as a @code{:pathname} specifier
to components that use it, using such syntax as
@code{#p"LOGICAL-HOST:absolute;path;to;component.lisp"}.

1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
You only have to specify such logical pathname
for your system or some top-level component.
Sub-components' relative pathnames,
specified using the string syntax for names,
will be properly merged with the pathnames of their parents.
1222
1223
1224
The specification of a logical pathname host however is @emph{not}
otherwise directly supported in the ASDF syntax
for pathname specifiers as strings.
1225

1226
The @code{asdf-output-translation} layer will
1227
1228
1229
avoid trying to resolve and translate logical pathnames.
The advantage of this is that
you can define yourself what translations you want to use
1230
with the logical pathname facility.
1231
1232
The disadvantage is that if you do not define such translations,
any system that uses logical pathnames will behave differently under
1233
asdf-output-translations than other systems you use.
1234

1235
If you wish to use logical pathnames you will have to configure the
1236
1237
1238
translations yourself before they may be used.
ASDF currently provides no specific support
for defining logical pathname translations.
1239

1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
Note that the reasons we do not recommend logical pathnames are that
(1) there is no portable way to set up logical pathnames before they are used,
(2) logical pathnames are limited to only portably use
a single character case, digits and hyphens.
While you can solve the first issue on your own,
describing how to do it on each of fifteen implementations supported by ASDF
is more than we can document.
As for the second issue, mind that the limitation is notably enforced on SBCL,
and that you therefore can't portably violate the limitations
but must instead define some encoding of your own and add individual mappings
to name physical pathnames that do not fit the restrictions.
This can notably be a problem when your Lisp files are part of a larger project
in which it is common to name files or directories in a way that
includes the version numbers of supported protocols,
or in which files are shared with software written
in different programming languages where conventions include the use of
underscores, dots or CamelCase in pathnames.