asdf.texinfo 115 KB
Newer Older
1
2
\input texinfo          @c -*- texinfo -*-
@c %**start of header
3
@setfilename asdf.info
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
4
@settitle ASDF Manual
5
6
@c %**end of header

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
@c We use @&key, etc to escape & from TeX in lambda lists --
@c so we need to define them for info as well.
@macro &allow-other-keys
&allow-other-keys
@end macro
@macro &optional
&optional
@end macro
@macro &rest
&rest
@end macro
@macro &key
&key
@end macro
@macro &body
&body
@end macro

25
26
27
@c for install-info
@dircategory Software development
@direntry
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
28
* asdf: (asdf).           Another System Definition Facility (for Common Lisp)
29
30
@end direntry

31
@copying
32
33
This manual describes ASDF, a system definition facility
for Common Lisp programs and libraries.
34

35
36
37
You can find the latest version of this manual at
@url{http://common-lisp.net/project/asdf/asdf.html}.

38
ASDF Copyright @copyright{} 2001-2010 Daniel Barlow and contributors.
39

40
41
This manual Copyright @copyright{} 2001-2010 Daniel Barlow and contributors.

Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
42
This manual revised @copyright{} 2009-2010 Robert P. Goldman and Francois-Rene Rideau.
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
``Software''), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be
included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS'', WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE
LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION
OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

@end copying



@titlepage
@title asdf: another system definition facility
69

70
71
72
73
74
@c The following two commands start the copyright page.
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@insertcopying
@end titlepage
75

76
77
78
79
80
81
82
@c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
@contents

@c -------------------

@ifnottex

83
@node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
84
@top asdf: another system definition facility
85

86
87
88
@insertcopying

@menu
89
90
* Introduction::
* Loading ASDF::
91
92
* Configuring ASDF::
* Using ASDF::
93
94
* Defining systems with defsystem::
* The object model of ASDF::
95
* Controlling where ASDF searches for systems::
96
97
98
99
100
* Controlling where ASDF saves compiled files::
* Error handling::
* Miscellaneous additional functionality::
* Getting the latest version::
* FAQ::
101
* TODO list::
102
103
104
105
* Inspiration::
* Concept Index::
* Function and Class Index::
* Variable Index::
106

107
108
@c @detailmenu
@c  --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
109

110
@c Defining systems with defsystem
111

112
113
114
115
@c * The defsystem form::
@c * A more involved example::
@c * The defsystem grammar::
@c * Other code in .asd files::
116

117
@c The object model of ASDF
118

119
120
@c * Operations::
@c * Components::
121

122
@c Operations
123

124
125
@c * Predefined operations of ASDF::
@c * Creating new operations::
126

127
@c Components
128

129
130
131
@c * Common attributes of components::
@c * Pre-defined subclasses of component::
@c * Creating new component types::
132

133
@c properties
134

135
136
@c * Pre-defined subclasses of component::
@c * Creating new component types::
137

138
@c @end detailmenu
139
140
141
142
143
144
@end menu

@end ifnottex

@c -------------------

145
@node Introduction, Loading ASDF, Top, Top
146
147
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Introduction
Robert P. Goldman's avatar
Robert P. Goldman committed
148
149
150
151
152
153
@cindex ASDF-related features
@vindex *features*
@cindex Testing for ASDF
@cindex ASDF versions
@cindex :asdf
@cindex :asdf2
154

155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
ASDF is Another System Definition Facility:
a tool for specifying how systems of Common Lisp software
are comprised of components (sub-systems and files),
and how to operate on these components in the right order
so that they can be compiled, loaded, tested, etc.

ASDF presents three faces:
one for users of Common Lisp software who want to reuse other people's code,
one for writers of Common Lisp software who want to specify how to build their systems,
one for implementers of Common Lisp extensions who want to extend the build system.
Robert P. Goldman's avatar
Robert P. Goldman committed
165
@xref{Using ASDF,,Loading a system},
166
to learn how to use ASDF to load a system.
Robert P. Goldman's avatar
Robert P. Goldman committed
167
@xref{Defining systems with defsystem},
168
to learn how to define a system of your own.
169
@xref{The object model of ASDF}, for a description of
Robert P. Goldman's avatar
Robert P. Goldman committed
170
the ASDF internals and how to extend ASDF.
171

Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
172
@emph{Nota Bene}:
173
We are preparing for a release of ASDF 2, hopefully for May 2010,
174
which will have version 2.000 and later.
175
Current releases, in the 1.700 series and beyond,
176
should be considered as release candidates.
177
We're still working on polishing the code and documentation.
178
@xref{FAQ,,``What has changed between ASDF 1 and ASDF 2?''}.
179

180

181
@node Loading ASDF, Configuring ASDF, Introduction, Top
182
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
183
@chapter Loading ASDF
184
@vindex *central-registry*
185
@cindex link farm
186
187
188
189
190
191
@findex load-system
@findex compile-system
@findex test-system
@cindex system directory designator
@findex operate
@findex oos
192

193
@c @menu
194
@c * Installing ASDF::
195
196
197
@c @end menu


198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
@section Loading a pre-installed ASDF

Many Lisp implementations include a copy of ASDF.
You can usually load this copy using Common Lisp's @code{require} function:

@lisp
(require :asdf)
@end lisp

Consult your Lisp implementation's documentation for details.

Hopefully, ASDF 2 will soon be bundled with every Common Lisp implementation,
and you can load it that way.


@section Checking whether ASDF is loaded

To check whether ASDF is properly loaded in your current Lisp image,
you can run this form:

@lisp
(asdf:asdf-version)
@end lisp

If it returns a string,
that is the version of ASDF that is currently installed.

If it raises an error,
then either ASDF is not loaded, or
you are using an old version of ASDF.

You can check whether an old version is loaded
by checking if the ASDF package is present.
The form below will allow you to programmatically determine
whether a recent version is loaded, an old version is loaded,
or none at all:

@lisp
236
(or #+asdf2 (asdf:asdf-version) #+asdf :old)
237
238
239
240
@end lisp

If it returns a version number, that's the version of ASDF installed.
If it returns the keyword @code{:OLD},
241
then you're using an old version of ASDF (from before 1.635).
242
243
If it returns @code{NIL} then ASDF is not installed.

244
If you are running a version older than 1.711,
245
246
247
we recommend that you load a newer ASDF using the method below.


248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
@section Upgrading ASDF

If your implementation does provide ASDF 2 or later,
and you want to upgrade to a more recent version,
just install ASDF like any other package
(see @pxref{Loading ASDF,,Loading an otherwise installed ASDF} below),
configure ASDF as usual (see @pxref{Configuring ASDF} below),
and upgrade with:

@lisp
(require :asdf)
(asdf:load-system :asdf)
@end lisp

If on the other hand, your implementation only provides an old ASDF,
you will require a special configuration step and an old-style loading:

@lisp
(require :asdf)
(push #p"@var{/path/to/new/asdf/}" asdf:*central-registry*)
(asdf:oos 'asdf:load-op :asdf)
@end lisp

Don't forget the trailing @code{/} at the end of your pathname.

Also, note that older versions of ASDF won't redirect their output,
or at least won't do it according to your usual ASDF 2 configuration.
You therefore need write access on the directory
where you install the new ASDF,
and make sure you're not using it
for multiple mutually incompatible implementations.
At worst, you may have to have multiple copies of the new ASDF,
e.g. one per implementation installation, to avoid clashes.

282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
Finally, note that there are some limitations to upgrading ASDF:
@itemize
@item
Any ASDF extension is invalidated, and will need to be reloaded.
@item
It is safer if you upgrade ASDF and its extensions as a special step
at the very beginning of whatever script you are running,
before you start using ASDF to load anything else.
@end itemize

292

293
294
295
@section Loading an otherwise installed ASDF

If your implementation doesn't include ASDF,
296
297
if for some reason the upgrade somehow fails,
does not or cannot apply to your case,
298
299
300
301
302
303
you will have to install the file @file{asdf.lisp}
somewhere and load it with:

@lisp
(load "/path/to/your/installed/asdf.lisp")
@end lisp
304

305
The single file @file{asdf.lisp} is all you normally need to use ASDF.
306

307
You can extract this file from latest release tarball on the
308
@url{http://common-lisp.net/project/asdf/,ASDF website}.
309
If you are daring and willing to report bugs, you can get
310
the latest and greatest version of ASDF from its git repository.
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
@xref{Getting the latest version}.

For maximum convenience you might want to have ASDF loaded
whenever you start your Lisp implementation,
for example by loading it from the startup script or dumping a custom core
--- check your Lisp implementation's manual for details.

318

319
320
@node Configuring ASDF, Using ASDF, Loading ASDF, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328

@chapter Configuring ASDF

@section Configuring ASDF to find your systems

So it may compile and load your systems, ASDF must be configured to find
the @file{.asd} files that contain system definitions.

329
Since ASDF 2, the preferred way to configure where ASDF finds your systems is
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
330
331
332
the @code{source-registry} facility,
fully described in its own chapter of this manual.
@xref{Controlling where ASDF searches for systems}.
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345

The default location for a user to install Common Lisp software is under
@file{~/.local/share/common-lisp/source/}.
If you install software there, you don't need further configuration.
If you're installing software yourself at a location that isn't standard,
you have to tell ASDF where you installed it. See below.
If you're using some tool to install software,
the authors of that tool should already have configured ASDF.

The simplest way to add a path to your search path,
say @file{/foo/bar/baz/quux/}
is to create the directory
@file{~/.config/common-lisp/source-registry.conf.d/}
346
and there create a file with any name of your choice but the type @file{conf},
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
for instance @file{42-bazquux.conf}
containing the line:

@kbd{(:directory "/foo/bar/baz/quux/")}

If you want all the subdirectories under @file{/foo/bar/baz/}
to be recursively scanned for @file{.asd} files, instead use:

@kbd{(:tree "/foo/bar/baz/quux/")}

Note that your Operating System distribution or your system administrator
may already have configured system-managed libraries for you.

360
361
362
363
364
The required @file{.conf} extension allows you to have disabled files
or editor backups (ending in @file{~}), and works portably
(for instance, it is a pain to allow both empty and non-empty extension on CLISP).
Excluded are files the name of which start with a @file{.} character.
It is customary to start the filename with two digits
365
366
367
368
369
that specify the order in which the directories will be scanned.

ASDF will automatically read your configuration
the first time you try to find a system.
You can reset the source-registry configuration with:
370

371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
@lisp
(asdf:clear-source-registry)
@end lisp

And you probably should do so before you dump your Lisp image,
if the configuration may change
between the machine where you save it at the time you save it
and the machine you resume it at the time you resume it.


Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
381
@section Configuring ASDF to find your systems -- old style
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451

The old way to configure ASDF to find your systems is by
@code{push}ing directory pathnames onto the variable
@code{asdf:*central-registry*}.

You must configure this variable between the time you load ASDF
and the time you first try to use it.
Loading and configuring ASDF presumably happen
as part of some initialization script that builds or starts
your Common Lisp software system.
(For instance, some SBCL users used to put it in their @file{~/.sbclrc}.)

The @code{asdf:*central-registry*} is empty by default in ASDF 2,
but is still supported for compatibility with ASDF 1.
When used, it takes precedence over the above source-registry@footnote{
It is possible to further customize
the system definition file search.
That's considered advanced use, and covered later:
search forward for
@code{*system-definition-search-functions*}.
@xref{Defining systems with defsystem}.}.

For instance, if you wanted ASDF to find the @file{.asd} file
@file{/home/me/src/foo/foo.asd} your initialization script
could after it loads ASDF with @code{(require :asdf)}
configure it with:

@lisp
(push "/home/me/src/foo/" asdf:*central-registry*)
@end lisp

Note the trailing slash: when searching for a system,
ASDF will evaluate each entry of the central registry
and coerce the result to a pathname@footnote{
ASDF will indeed call @code{EVAL} on each entry.
It will also skip entries that evaluate to @code{NIL}.

Strings and pathname objects are self-evaluating,
in which case the @code{EVAL} step does nothing;
but you may push arbitrary SEXP onto the central registry,
that will be evaluated to compute e.g. things that depend
on the value of shell variables or the identity of the user.

The variable @code{asdf:*central-registry*} is thus a list of
``system directory designators''.
A @dfn{system directory designator} is a form
which will be evaluated whenever a system is to be found,
and must evaluate to a directory to look in.
By ``directory'' here, we mean
``designator for a pathname with a supplied DIRECTORY component''.
}
at which point the presence of the trailing directory name separator
is necessary to tell Lisp that you're discussing a directory
rather than a file.

Typically, however, there are a lot of @file{.asd} files, and
a common idiom was to have to put
a bunch of @emph{symbolic links} to @file{.asd} files
in a common directory
and push @emph{that} directory (the ``link farm'')
to the
@code{asdf:*central-registry*}
instead of pushing each of the many involved directories
to the @code{asdf:*central-registry*}.
ASDF knows how to follow such @emph{symlinks}
to the actual file location when resolving the paths of system components
(on Windows, you can use Windows shortcuts instead of POSIX symlinks).

For example, if @code{#p"/home/me/cl/systems/"} (note the trailing slash)
is a member of @code{*central-registry*}, you could set up the
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
system @var{foo} for loading with asdf with the following
commands at the shell:

@example
$ cd /home/me/cl/systems/
$ ln -s ~/src/foo/foo.asd .
@end example

460
461
462
463
This old style for configuring ASDF is not recommended for new users,
but it is supported for old users, and for users who want to programmatically
control what directories are added to the ASDF search path.

464

465
@section Configuring where ASDF stores object files
466
@findex clear-output-locations
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478

ASDF lets you configure where object files will be stored.
Sensible defaults are provided and
you shouldn't normally have to worry about it.

This allows the same source code repository may be shared
between several versions of several Common Lisp implementations,
between several users using different compilation options
and without write privileges on shared source directories, etc.
This also allows to keep source directories uncluttered
by plenty of object files.

479
Starting with ASDF 2, the @code{asdf-output-translations} facility
480
was added to ASDF itself, that controls where object files will be stored.
481
This facility is fully described in a chapter of this manual,
482
@ref{Controlling where ASDF saves compiled files}.
483
484
485
486
487
488

The simplest way to add a translation to your search path,
say from @file{/foo/bar/baz/quux/}
to @file{/where/i/want/my/fasls/}
is to create the directory
@file{~/.config/common-lisp/asdf-output-translations.conf.d/}
489
and there create a file with any name of your choice and the type @file{conf},
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
for instance @file{42-bazquux.conf}
containing the line:

@kbd{("/foo/bar/baz/quux/" "/where/i/want/my/fasls/")}

To disable output translations for source under a given directory,
say @file{/toto/tata/}
you can create a file @file{40-disable-toto.conf}
with the line:

@kbd{("/toto/tata/")}

To wholly disable output translations for all directories,
you can create a file @file{00-disable.conf}
with the line:

506
@kbd{(t t)}
507
508
509
510
511

Note that your Operating System distribution or your system administrator
may already have configured translations for you.
In absence of any configuration, the default is to redirect everything
under an implementation-dependent subdirectory of @file{~/.cache/common-lisp/}.
512
@xref{Controlling where ASDF searches for systems}, for full details.
513

514
515
516
517
518
The required @file{.conf} extension allows you to have disabled files
or editor backups (ending in @file{~}), and works portably
(for instance, it is a pain to allow both empty and non-empty extension on CLISP).
Excluded are files the name of which start with a @file{.} character.
It is customary to start the filename with two digits
519
520
521
522
523
that specify the order in which the directories will be scanned.

ASDF will automatically read your configuration
the first time you try to find a system.
You can reset the source-registry configuration with:
524
525

@lisp
526
(asdf:clear-output-translations)
527
528
@end lisp

529
530
531
532
533
And you probably should do so before you dump your Lisp image,
if the configuration may change
between the machine where you save it at the time you save it
and the machine you resume it at the time you resume it.

534
Finally note that before ASDF 2,
535
536
537
538
other ASDF add-ons offered the same functionality,
each in subtly different and incompatible ways:
ASDF-Binary-Locations, cl-launch, common-lisp-controller.
ASDF-Binary-Locations is now not needed anymore and should not be used.
539
cl-launch 2.900 and common-lisp-controller 7.1 have been updated
540
to just delegate this functionality to ASDF.
541

542
543
@node Using ASDF, Defining systems with defsystem, Configuring ASDF, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
544

545
546
547
548
549
550
@chapter Using ASDF

@section Loading a system

The system @var{foo} is loaded (and compiled, if necessary)
by evaluating the following Lisp form:
551
552

@example
553
(asdf:load-system :@var{foo})
554
555
@end example

556
On some implementations (namely ABCL, Clozure CL, CMUCL, ECL and SBCL),
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
ASDF hooks into the @code{CL:REQUIRE} facility
and you can just use:

@example
(require :@var{foo})
@end example

564
565
In older versions of ASDF, you needed to use
@code{(asdf:oos 'asdf:load-op :@var{foo})}.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
566
567
If your ASDF is too old to provide @code{asdf:load-system} though
we recommend that you upgrade to ASDF 2.
568
@xref{Loading ASDF,,Loading an otherwise installed ASDF}.
569

570

571
@section Other Operations
572

573
574
ASDF provides three commands for the most common system operations:
@code{load-system}, @code{compile-system} or @code{test-system}.
575

576
577
578
579
580
581
Because ASDF is an extensible system
for defining @emph{operations} on @emph{components},
it also provides a generic function @code{operate}
(which is usually abbreviated by @code{oos}).
You'll use @code{oos} whenever you want to do something beyond
compiling, loading and testing.
582

583
584
585
586
Output from ASDF and ASDF extensions are supposed to be sent
to the CL stream @code{*standard-output*},
and so rebinding that stream around calls to @code{asdf:operate}
should redirect all output from ASDF operations.
587

588
589
Reminder: before ASDF can operate on a system, however,
it must be able to find and load that system's definition.
590
@xref{Configuring ASDF,,Configuring ASDF to find your systems}.
591
592


593
594
595
596
597
@section Summary

To use ASDF:

@itemize
598
@item
599
600
601
Load ASDF itself into your Lisp image, either through
@code{(require :asdf)} or else through
@code{(load "/path/to/asdf.lisp")}.
602

603
@item
604
605
Make sure ASDF can find system definitions
thanks to proper source-registry configuration.
606

607
@item
608
609
Load a system with @code{(load-system :my-system)}
or use some other operation on some system of your choice.
610
611
612

@end itemize

613
@section Moving on
614

615
616
617
618
619
That's all you need to know to use ASDF to load systems written by others.
The rest of this manual deals with writing system definitions
for Common Lisp software you write yourself,
including how to extend ASDF to define new operation and component types.

620

621
@node Defining systems with defsystem, The object model of ASDF, Using ASDF, Top
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Defining systems with defsystem

This chapter describes how to use asdf to define systems and develop
software.


@menu
630
631
632
633
* The defsystem form::
* A more involved example::
* The defsystem grammar::
* Other code in .asd files::
634
635
636
637
638
639
@end menu

@node  The defsystem form, A more involved example, Defining systems with defsystem, Defining systems with defsystem
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section The defsystem form

640
641
642
643
644
645
Systems can be constructed programmatically
by instantiating components using @code{make-instance}.
Most of the time, however, it is much more practical to use
a static @code{defsystem} form.
This section begins with an example of a system definition,
then gives the full grammar of @code{defsystem}.
646

647
648
Let's look at a simple system.
This is a complete file that would
649
usually be saved as @file{hello-lisp.asd}:
650
651

@lisp
652
(in-package :asdf)
653

654
(defsystem "hello-lisp"
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
  :description "hello-lisp: a sample Lisp system."
  :version "0.2"
  :author "Joe User <joe@@example.com>"
  :licence "Public Domain"
  :components ((:file "packages")
               (:file "macros" :depends-on ("packages"))
               (:file "hello" :depends-on ("macros"))))
662
663
664
665
666
@end lisp

Some notes about this example:

@itemize
667
668

@item
669
670
671
672
The file starts with an @code{in-package} form
to use package @code{asdf}.
You could instead start your definition by using
a qualified name @code{asdf:defsystem}.
673

674
@item
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
If in addition to simply using @code{defsystem},
you are going to define functions,
create ASDF extension, globally bind symbols, etc.,
it is recommended that to avoid namespace pollution between systems,
you should create your own package for that purpose,
for instance replacing the above @code{(in-package :asdf)} with:

@lisp
(defpackage :foo-system
  (:use :cl :asdf))

(in-package :foo-system)
@end lisp
688
689

@item
690
691
692
The @code{defsystem} form defines a system named @code{hello-lisp}
that contains three source files:
@file{packages}, @file{macros} and @file{hello}.
693

694
695
696
697
698
699
700
@item
The file @file{macros} depends on @file{packages}
(presumably because the package it's in is defined in @file{packages}),
and the file @file{hello} depends on @file{macros}
(and hence, transitively on @file{packages}).
This means that ASDF will compile and load @file{packages} and @file{macros}
before starting the compilation of file @file{hello}.
701
702

@item
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
The files are located in the same directory
as the file with the system definition.
ASDF resolves symbolic links (or Windows shortcuts)
before loading the system definition file and
stores its location in the resulting system@footnote{
It is possible, though almost never necessary, to override this behaviour.}.
This is a good thing because the user can move the system sources
without having to edit the system definition.
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723

@end itemize

@node  A more involved example, The defsystem grammar, The defsystem form, Defining systems with defsystem
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section A more involved example

Let's illustrate some more involved uses of @code{defsystem} via a
slightly convoluted example:

@lisp
(defsystem "foo"
  :version "1.0"
724
  :components ((:module "foo" :components ((:file "bar") (:file"baz")
725
                                           (:file "quux"))
Robert P. Goldman's avatar
Nits.    
Robert P. Goldman committed
726
727
728
729
                :perform (compile-op :after (op c)
                          (do-something c))
                :explain (compile-op :after (op c)
                          (explain-something c)))
730
731
732
733
734
735
               (:file "blah")))
@end lisp

The method-form tokens need explaining: essentially, this part:

@lisp
736
737
738
739
                :perform (compile-op :after (op c)
                          (do-something c))
                :explain (compile-op :after (op c)
                          (explain-something c))
740
741
742
743
744
745
@end lisp

has the effect of

@lisp
(defmethod perform :after ((op compile-op) (c (eql ...)))
746
           (do-something c))
747
(defmethod explain :after ((op compile-op) (c (eql ...)))
748
           (explain-something c))
749
750
@end lisp

Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
751
752
753
754
755
756
where @code{...} is the component in question;
note that although this also supports @code{:before} methods,
they may not do what you want them to ---
a @code{:before} method on perform @code{((op compile-op) (c (eql ...)))}
will run after all the dependencies and sub-components have been processed,
but before the component in question has been compiled.
757

758
@node  The defsystem grammar, Other code in .asd files, A more involved example, Defining systems with defsystem
759
760
761
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section The defsystem grammar

762
763
@example
system-definition := ( defsystem system-designator @var{option}* )
764
765

option := :components component-list
766
        | :pathname pathname-specifier
767
        | :default-component-class
768
        | :perform method-form
769
        | :explain method-form
770
        | :output-files method-form
771
        | :operation-done-p method-form
772
        | :depends-on ( @var{dependency-def}* )
773
        | :serial [ t | nil ]
774
        | :in-order-to ( @var{dependency}+ )
775

776
component-list := ( @var{component-def}* )
777

778
component-def  := ( component-type simple-component-name @var{option}* )
779

780
component-type := :system | :module | :file | :static-file | other-component-type
781

782
other-component-type := symbol-by-name (@pxref{The defsystem grammar,,Component types})
783

Gary King's avatar
Gary King committed
784
785
786
787
dependency-def := simple-component-name
               | ( :feature name )
               | ( :version simple-component-name version-specifier)

788
789
dependency := (dependent-op @var{requirement}+)
requirement := (required-op @var{required-component}+)
790
791
792
             | (feature feature-name)
dependent-op := operation-name
required-op := operation-name | feature
Gary King's avatar
Gary King committed
793
794
795

simple-component-name := string
                      |  symbol
796

797
798
pathname-specifier := pathname | string | symbol

799
method-form := (operation-name qual lambda-list @&rest body)
800
qual := method qualifier
801
@end example
802

803
804
@subsection Component names

805
806
Component names (@code{simple-component-name})
may be either strings or symbols.
807

808
@subsection Component types
809
810
811
812
813
814
815

Component type names, even if expressed as keywords, will be looked up
by name in the current package and in the asdf package, if not found in
the current package.  So a component type @code{my-component-type}, in
the current package @code{my-system-asd} can be specified as
@code{:my-component-type}, or @code{my-component-type}.

816
817
@subsection Pathname specifiers

818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
A pathname specifier (@code{pathname-specifier})
may be a pathname, a string or a symbol.
When no pathname specifier is given for a component,
which is the usual case, the component name itself is used.

If a string is given, which is the usual case,
the string will be interpreted as a Unix-style pathname
where @code{/} characters will be interpreted as directory separators.
Usually, Unix-style relative pathnames are used
(i.e. not starting with @code{/}, as opposed to absolute pathnames);
they are relative to the path of the parent component.
Finally, depending on the @code{component-type},
the pathname may be interpreted as either a file or a directory,
and if it's a file,
a file type may be added corresponding to the @code{component-type},
or else it will be extracted from the string itself (if applicable).

For instance, the @code{component-type} @code{:module}
wants a directory pathname, and so a string @code{"foo/bar"}
will be interpreted as the pathname @file{#p"foo/bar/"}.
On the other hand, the @code{component-type} @code{:file}
wants a file of type @code{lisp}, and so a string @code{"foo/bar"}
will be interpreted as the pathname @file{#p"foo/bar.lisp"},
and a string @code{"foo/bar.quux"}
will be interpreted as the pathname @file{#p"foo/bar.quux.lisp"}.
Finally, the @code{component-type} @code{:static-file}
wants a file without specifying a type, and so a string @code{"foo/bar"}
will be interpreted as the pathname @file{#p"foo/bar"},
and a string @code{"foo/bar.quux"}
will be interpreted as the pathname @file{#p"foo/bar.quux"}.

849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
ASDF does not interpret the string @code{".."} to designate the parent
directory.  This string will be passed through to the underlying
operating system for interpretation.  We @emph{believe} that this will
work on all platforms where ASDF is deployed, but do not guarantee this
behavior.  A pathname object with a relative directory component of
@code{:up} or @code{:back} is the only guaranteed way to specify a
parent directory.

857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
If a symbol is given, it will be translated into a string,
and downcased in the process.
The downcasing of symbols is unconventional,
but was selected after some consideration.
Observations suggest that the type of systems we want to support
either have lowercase as customary case (Unix, Mac, windows)
or silently convert lowercase to uppercase (lpns),
so this makes more sense than attempting to use @code{:case :common}
as argument to @code{make-pathname},
which is reported not to work on some implementations.

868
Pathname objects may be given to override the path for a component.
869
870
Such objects are typically specified using reader macros such as @code{#p}
or @code{#.(make-pathname ...)}.
871
872
873
874
Note however, that @code{#p...} is a shorthand for @code{#.(parse-namestring ...)}
and that the behavior of @code{parse-namestring} is completely non-portable,
unless you are using Common Lisp @code{logical-pathname}s
(@pxref{The defsystem grammar,,Warning about logical pathnames}, below).
875
876
877
878
Pathnames made with @code{#.(make-pathname ...)}
can usually be done more easily with the string syntax above.
The only case that you really need a pathname object is to override
the component-type default file type for a given component.
879
Therefore, pathname objects should only rarely be used.
880
Unhappily, ASDF 1 didn't properly support
881
882
parsing component names as strings specifying paths with directories,
and the cumbersome @code{#.(make-pathname ...)} syntax had to be used.
883
884
885
886
887

Note that when specifying pathname objects, 
ASDF does not do any special interpretation of the pathname
influenced by the component type, unlike the procedure for
pathname-specifying strings.
888
889
890
891
892
On the one hand, you have to be careful to provide a pathname that correctly
fulfills whatever constraints are required from that component type
(e.g. naming a directory or a file with appropriate type);
on the other hand, you can circumvent the file type that would otherwise
be forced upon you if you were specifying a string.
893
894
895
896


@subsection Warning about logical pathnames

897
898
899
We recommend that you no use logical pathnames in your asdf system
definitions, but logical pathnames @emph{are} supported.

900
901
902
903
904
905
To use logical pathnames,
you will have to provide a pathname object as a @code{:pathname} specifier
to components that use it, using such syntax as
@code{#p"LOGICAL-HOST:absolute;path;to;component.lisp"}.

You only have to specify such logical pathname for your system or
906
907
908
some top-level component.  Sub-components' relative pathnames, specified
using the string syntax
for names, will be properly merged with the pathnames of their parents.
909
910
911
The specification of a logical pathname host however is @emph{not}
otherwise directly supported in the ASDF syntax
for pathname specifiers as strings.
912

913
914
915
The @code{asdf-output-translation} layer will
avoid trying to resolve and translate logical-pathnames.
The advantage of this is that you can define yourself what translations you want to use
916
with the logical pathname facility.
917
918
919
The disadvantage is that if you do not define such translations, any
system that uses logical pathnames will be have differently under
asdf-output-translations than other systems you use.
920

921
922
923
If you wish to use logical pathnames you will have to configure the
translations yourself before they may be used.  ASDF provides no
specific support for defining logical pathname translations.
924
925


926
927
@subsection Serial dependencies

928
929
930
931
If the @code{:serial t} option is specified for a module,
ASDF will add dependencies for each each child component,
on all the children textually preceding it.
This is done as if by @code{:depends-on}.
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940

@lisp
:components ((:file "a") (:file "b") (:file "c"))
:serial t
@end lisp

is equivalent to

@lisp
941
:components ((:file "a")
942
943
             (:file "b" :depends-on ("a"))
             (:file "c" :depends-on ("a" "b")))
944
945
946
947
948
949
@end lisp


@subsection Source location

The @code{:pathname} option is optional in all cases for systems
950
951
defined via @code{defsystem},
and in the usual case the user is recommended not to supply it.
952

953
Instead, ASDF follows a hairy set of rules that are designed so that
954
@enumerate
955
@item
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
1.647:    
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
956
957
@code{find-system}
will load a system from disk
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
and have its pathname default to the right place.
@item
This pathname information will not be overwritten with
@code{*default-pathname-defaults*}
(which could be somewhere else altogether)
if the user loads up the @file{.asd} file into his editor
and interactively re-evaluates that form.
965
966
@end enumerate

967
968
If a system is being loaded for the first time,
its top-level pathname will be set to:
969
970

@itemize
971
972
973
974
975
@item
The host/device/directory parts of @code{*load-truename*},
if it is bound.
@item
@code{*default-pathname-defaults*}, otherwise.
976
977
978
979
980
981
@end itemize

If a system is being redefined, the top-level pathname will be

@itemize
@item
982
983
changed, if explicitly supplied or obtained from @code{*load-truename*}
(so that an updated source location is reflected in the system definition)
984
@item
985
changed if it had previously been set from @code{*default-pathname-defaults*}
986
@item
987
988
989
990
left as before, if it had previously been set from @code{*load-truename*}
and @code{*load-truename*} is currently unbound
(so that a developer can evaluate a @code{defsystem} form
from within an editor without clobbering its source location)
991
992
@end itemize

993
@node Other code in .asd files,  , The defsystem grammar, Defining systems with defsystem
994
995
@section Other code in .asd files

996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
Files containing @code{defsystem} forms
are regular Lisp files that are executed by @code{load}.
Consequently, you can put whatever Lisp code you like into these files
(e.g., code that examines the compile-time environment
and adds appropriate features to @code{*features*}).
However, some conventions should be followed,
so that users can control certain details of execution
of the Lisp in @file{.asd} files:
1004
1005
1006

@itemize
@item
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
Any informative output
(other than warnings and errors,
which are the condition system's to dispose of)
should be sent to the standard CL stream @code{*standard-output*},
so that users can easily control the disposition
of output from ASDF operations.
1013
@end itemize
1014
1015


1016
@node The object model of ASDF, Controlling where ASDF searches for systems, Defining systems with defsystem, Top
1017
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
@chapter The object model of ASDF

ASDF is designed in an object-oriented way from the ground up.
Both a system's structure and the operations that can be performed on systems
follow a protocol.
ASDF is extensible to new operations and to new component types.
This allows the addition of behaviours:
for example, a new component could be added for Java JAR archives,
and methods specialised on @code{compile-op} added for it
that would accomplish the relevant actions.

This chapter deals with @emph{components}, the building blocks of a system,
and @emph{operations}, the actions that can be performed on a system.
1031
1032
1033
1034



@menu
1035
1036
* Operations::
* Components::
1037
1038
@end menu

1039
@node  Operations, Components, The object model of ASDF, The object model of ASDF
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Operations
@cindex operation

An @dfn{operation} object of the appropriate type is instantiated
whenever the user wants to do something with a system like

@itemize
@item compile all its files
@item load the files into a running lisp environment
@item copy its source files somewhere else
@end itemize

1053
1054
1055
1056
Operations can be invoked directly, or examined
to see what their effects would be without performing them.
@emph{FIXME: document how!}
There are a bunch of methods specialised on operation and component type
1057
1058
that actually do the grunt work.

1059
1060
1061
1062
The operation object contains whatever state is relevant for this purpose
(perhaps a list of visited nodes, for example)
but primarily is a nice thing to specialise operation methods on
and easier than having them all be @code{EQL} methods.
1063
1064

Operations are invoked on systems via @code{operate}.
1065
@anchor{operate}
1066
1067
@deffn {Generic function} @code{operate} @var{operation} @var{system} @&rest @var{initargs}
@deffnx {Generic function} @code{oos} @var{operation} @var{system} @&rest @var{initargs}
1068
1069
@code{operate} invokes @var{operation} on @var{system}.
@code{oos} is a synonym for @code{operate}.
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074

@var{operation} is a symbol that is passed, along with the supplied
@var{initargs}, to @code{make-instance} to create the operation object.
@var{system} is a system designator.

1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
The @var{initargs} are passed to the @code{make-instance} call
when creating the operation object.
Note that dependencies may cause the operation
to invoke other operations on the system or its components:
the new operations will be created
with the same @var{initargs} as the original one.
1081
1082
1083
1084

@end deffn

@menu
1085
1086
* Predefined operations of ASDF::
* Creating new operations::
1087
1088
@end menu

1089
@node Predefined operations of ASDF, Creating new operations, Operations, Operations
1090
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
1091
@subsection Predefined operations of ASDF
1092

1093
1094
All the operations described in this section are in the @code{asdf} package.
They are invoked via the @code{operate} generic function.
1095
1096

@lisp
1097
(asdf:operate 'asdf:@var{operation-name} :@var{system-name} @{@var{operation-options ...}@})
1098
1099
@end lisp

1100
@deffn Operation @code{compile-op} @&key @code{proclamations}
1101

1102
1103
1104
This operation compiles the specified component.
If proclamations are supplied, they will be proclaimed.
This is a good place to specify optimization settings.
1105

1106
1107
When creating a new component type,
you should provide methods for @code{compile-op}.
1108

1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
When @code{compile-op} is invoked,
component dependencies often cause some parts of the system
to be loaded as well as compiled.
Invoking @code{compile-op}
does not necessarily load all the parts of the system, though;
use @code{load-op} to load a system.
1115
1116
@end deffn

1117
@deffn Operation @code{load-op} @&key @code{proclamations}
1118
1119
1120
1121

This operation loads a system.

The default methods for @code{load-op} compile files before loading them.
1122
For parity, your own methods on new component types should probably do so too.
1123
1124
@end deffn

1125
@deffn Operation @code{load-source-op}
1126

1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
This operation will load the source for the files in a module
even if the source files have been compiled.
Systems sometimes have knotty dependencies
which require that sources are loaded
before they can be compiled.
This is how you do that.
1133

1134
1135
If you are creating a component type,
you need to implement this operation --- at least, where meaningful.
1136
1137
@end deffn

1138
@anchor{test-op}
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
@deffn Operation @code{test-op}

This operation will perform some tests on the module.
The default method will do nothing.
The default dependency is to require
@code{load-op} to be performed on the module first.
The default @code{operation-done-p} is that the operation is @emph{never} done
---
we assume that if you invoke the @code{test-op},
you want to test the system, even if you have already done so.

The results of this operation are not defined by ASDF.
It has proven difficult to define how the test operation
should signal its results to the user
in a way that is compatible with all of the various test libraries
and test techniques in use in the community.
Robert P. Goldman's avatar
Robert P. Goldman committed
1155
1156
@end deffn

Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
1157
@c @deffn Operation test-system-version @&key minimum
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169

@c Asks the system whether it satisfies a version requirement.

@c The default method accepts a string, which is expected to contain of a
@c number of integers separated by #\. characters.  The method is not
@c recursive.  The component satisfies the version dependency if it has
@c the same major number as required and each of its sub-versions is
@c greater than or equal to the sub-version number required.

@c @lisp
@c (defun version-satisfies (x y)
@c   (labels ((bigger (x y)
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
@c           (cond ((not y) t)
@c                 ((not x) nil)
@c                 ((> (car x) (car y)) t)
@c                 ((= (car x) (car y))
@c                  (bigger (cdr x) (cdr y))))))
1175
@c     (and (= (car x) (car y))
1176
@c       (or (not (cdr y)) (bigger (cdr x) (cdr y))))))
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
@c @end lisp

@c If that doesn't work for your system, you can override it.  I hope
@c you have as much fun writing the new method as @verb{|#lisp|} did
@c reimplementing this one.
@c @end deffn

@c @deffn Operation feature-dependent-op

@c An instance of @code{feature-dependent-op} will ignore any components
@c which have a @code{features} attribute, unless the feature combination
@c it designates is satisfied by @code{*features*}.  This operation is
@c not intended to be instantiated directly, but other operations may
@c inherit from it.

@c @end deffn
1193

1194
@node  Creating new operations,  , Predefined operations of ASDF, Operations
1195
1196
1197
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection Creating new operations

1198
1199
1200
ASDF was designed to be extensible in an object-oriented fashion.
To teach ASDF new tricks, a programmer can implement the behaviour he wants
by creating a subclass of @code{operation}.
1201

1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
ASDF's pre-defined operations are in no way ``privileged'',
but it is requested that developers never use the @code{asdf} package
for operations they develop themselves.
The rationale for this rule is that we don't want to establish a
``global asdf operation name registry'',
but also want to avoid name clashes.
1208
1209

An operation must provide methods for the following generic functions
1210
1211
when invoked with an object of type @code{source-file}:
@emph{FIXME describe this better}
1212
1213
1214
1215

@itemize

@item @code{output-files}
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
The @code{output-files} method determines where the method will put its files.
It returns two values, a list of pathnames, and a boolean.
If the boolean is @code{T} then the pathnames are marked
not be translated by enclosing @code{:around} methods.
If the boolean is @code{NIL} then enclosing @code{:around} methods
may translate these pathnames, e.g. to ensure object files
are somehow stored in some implementation-dependent cache.
1223
@item @code{perform}
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
The @code{perform} method must call @code{output-files}
to find out where to put its files,
because the user is allowed to override.
@item @code{output-files}
for local policy @code{explain}
@item @code{operation-done-p},
if you don't like the default one
1231
1232
1233

@end itemize

1234
1235
1236
Operations that print output should send that output to the standard
CL stream @code{*standard-output*}, as the Lisp compiler and loader do.

1237
@node Components,  , Operations, The object model of ASDF
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Components
@cindex component
@cindex system
@cindex system designator
@vindex *system-definition-search-functions*

1245
1246
1247
1248
A @dfn{component} represents a source file or
(recursively) a collection of components.
A @dfn{system} is (roughly speaking) a top-level component
that can be found via @code{find-system}.
1249

1250
1251
1252
A @dfn{system designator} is a string or symbol
and behaves just like any other component name
(including with regard to the case conversion rules for component names).
1253
1254
1255
1256


@defun find-system system-designator &optional (error-p t)

1257
1258
1259
1260
Given a system designator, @code{find-system} finds and returns a system.
If no system is found, an error of type
@code{missing-component} is thrown,
or @code{nil} is returned if @code{error-p} is false.
1261
1262

To find and update systems, @code{find-system} funcalls each element
1263
1264
1265
in the @code{*system-definition-search-functions*} list,
expecting a pathname to be returned.
The resulting pathname is loaded if either of the following conditions is true:
1266
1267

@itemize
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
@item
there is no system of that name in memory
@item
the file's @code{last-modified} time exceeds the @code{last-modified} time
of the system in memory
1273
1274
@end itemize

1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
When system definitions are loaded from @file{.asd} files,
a new scratch package is created for them to load into,
so that different systems do not overwrite each others operations.
The user may also wish to (and is recommended to)
include @code{defpackage} and @code{in-package} forms
in his system definition files, however,
so that they can be loaded manually if need be.

The default value of @code{*system-definition-search-functions*}
is a list of two functions.
The first function looks in each of the directories given
by evaluating members of @code{*central-registry*}
for a file whose name is the name of the system and whose type is @file{asd}.
The first such file is returned,
whether or not it turns out to actually define the appropriate system.
The second function does something similar,
for the directories specified in the @code{source-registry}.
Hence, it is strongly advised to define a system
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
@var{foo} in the corresponding file @var{foo.asd}.
@end defun


@menu
1298
1299
1300
* Common attributes of components::
* Pre-defined subclasses of component::
* Creating new component types::
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
@end menu

@node  Common attributes of components, Pre-defined subclasses of component, Components, Components
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection Common attributes of components

All components, regardless of type, have the following attributes.
All attributes except @code{name} are optional.

@subsubsection Name

1312
1313
A component name is a string or a symbol.
If a symbol, its name is taken and lowercased.
1314

1315
1316
Unless overridden by a @code{:pathname} attribute,
the name will be interpreted as a pathname specifier according
1317
1318
to a Unix-style syntax.
@xref{The defsystem grammar,,Pathname specifiers}.
1319
1320
1321

@subsubsection Version identifier

Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
1322
This optional attribute is used by the @code{test-system-version} operation.
1323
1324
1325
1326
@xref{Predefined operations of ASDF}.
For the default method of @code{test-system-version},
the version should be a string of integers separated by dots,
for example @samp{1.0.11}.
1327

Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
@emph{Nota Bene}:
This operation, planned for ASDF 1,
is still not implement yet as of ASDF 2.
Don't hold your breath.


1334
1335
@subsubsection Required features

1336
1337
1338
@emph{FIXME: This subsection seems to contradict the
@code{defsystem} grammar subsection,
which doesn't provide any obvious way to specify required features.
1339
Furthermore, in 2009, discussions on the
1340
@url{http://common-lisp.net/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/asdf-devel,asdf-devel mailing list}
1341
1342
suggested that the specification of required features may be broken,
and that no one may have been using them for a while.
1343
Please contact the
1344
@url{http://common-lisp.net/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/asdf-devel,asdf-devel mailing list}
1345
if you are interested in getting this features feature fixed.}
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352

Traditionally defsystem users have used reader conditionals
to include or exclude specific per-implementation files.
This means that any single implementation cannot read the entire system,
which becomes a problem if it doesn't wish to compile it,
but instead for example to create an archive file containing all the sources,
as it will omit to process the system-dependent sources for other systems.
1353
1354

Each component in an asdf system may therefore specify features using
1355
the same syntax as @code{#+} does, and it will (somehow) be ignored for
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
certain operations unless the feature conditional is a member of
@code{*features*}.


@subsubsection Dependencies

1362
1363
This attribute specifies dependencies of the component on its siblings.
It is optional but often necessary.