asdf.texinfo 169 KB
Newer Older
1
2
\input texinfo          @c -*- texinfo -*-
@c %**start of header
3
@setfilename asdf.info
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
4
@settitle ASDF Manual
5
6
@c %**end of header

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
@c We use @&key, etc to escape & from TeX in lambda lists --
@c so we need to define them for info as well.
@macro &allow-other-keys
&allow-other-keys
@end macro
@macro &optional
&optional
@end macro
@macro &rest
&rest
@end macro
@macro &key
&key
@end macro
@macro &body
&body
@end macro

25
26
27
@c for install-info
@dircategory Software development
@direntry
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
28
* asdf: (asdf).           Another System Definition Facility (for Common Lisp)
29
30
@end direntry

31
@copying
32
33
This manual describes ASDF, a system definition facility
for Common Lisp programs and libraries.
34

35
36
37
You can find the latest version of this manual at
@url{http://common-lisp.net/project/asdf/asdf.html}.

38
ASDF Copyright @copyright{} 2001-2012 Daniel Barlow and contributors.
39

40
This manual Copyright @copyright{} 2001-2012 Daniel Barlow and contributors.
41

42
This manual revised @copyright{} 2009-2012 Robert P. Goldman and Francois-Rene Rideau.
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
``Software''), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be
included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS'', WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE
LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION
OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

@end copying



@titlepage
68
@title ASDF: Another System Definition Facility
69

70
71
72
73
74
@c The following two commands start the copyright page.
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@insertcopying
@end titlepage
75

76
77
78
79
80
81
82
@c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
@contents

@c -------------------

@ifnottex

83
@node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
84
@top asdf: another system definition facility
85

86
87
88
@insertcopying

@menu
89
90
* Introduction::
* Loading ASDF::
91
92
* Configuring ASDF::
* Using ASDF::
93
94
* Defining systems with defsystem::
* The object model of ASDF::
95
* Controlling where ASDF searches for systems::
96
97
98
99
100
* Controlling where ASDF saves compiled files::
* Error handling::
* Miscellaneous additional functionality::
* Getting the latest version::
* FAQ::
101
* TODO list::
102
103
104
105
* Inspiration::
* Concept Index::
* Function and Class Index::
* Variable Index::
106

107
108
@c @detailmenu
@c  --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
109

110
@c Defining systems with defsystem
111

112
113
114
115
@c * The defsystem form::
@c * A more involved example::
@c * The defsystem grammar::
@c * Other code in .asd files::
116

117
@c The object model of ASDF
118

119
120
@c * Operations::
@c * Components::
121

122
@c Operations
123

124
125
@c * Predefined operations of ASDF::
@c * Creating new operations::
126

127
@c Components
128

129
130
131
@c * Common attributes of components::
@c * Pre-defined subclasses of component::
@c * Creating new component types::
132

133
@c properties
134

135
136
@c * Pre-defined subclasses of component::
@c * Creating new component types::
137

138
@c @end detailmenu
139
140
141
142
143
144
@end menu

@end ifnottex

@c -------------------

145
@node Introduction, Loading ASDF, Top, Top
146
147
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Introduction
Robert P. Goldman's avatar
Robert P. Goldman committed
148
149
150
151
152
153
@cindex ASDF-related features
@vindex *features*
@cindex Testing for ASDF
@cindex ASDF versions
@cindex :asdf
@cindex :asdf2
154

155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
ASDF is Another System Definition Facility:
a tool for specifying how systems of Common Lisp software
are comprised of components (sub-systems and files),
and how to operate on these components in the right order
so that they can be compiled, loaded, tested, etc.

ASDF presents three faces:
one for users of Common Lisp software who want to reuse other people's code,
one for writers of Common Lisp software who want to specify how to build their systems,
one for implementers of Common Lisp extensions who want to extend the build system.
Robert P. Goldman's avatar
Robert P. Goldman committed
165
@xref{Using ASDF,,Loading a system},
166
to learn how to use ASDF to load a system.
Robert P. Goldman's avatar
Robert P. Goldman committed
167
@xref{Defining systems with defsystem},
168
to learn how to define a system of your own.
169
@xref{The object model of ASDF}, for a description of
Robert P. Goldman's avatar
Robert P. Goldman committed
170
the ASDF internals and how to extend ASDF.
171

Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
172
@emph{Nota Bene}:
173
We have released ASDF 2.000 on May 31st 2010.
174
Subsequent releases of ASDF 2 have since then been included
175
176
177
in all actively maintained CL implementations that used to bundle ASDF 1,
plus some implementations that didn't use to,
and has been made to work with all actively used CL implementations and a few more.
178
@xref{FAQ,,``What has changed between ASDF 1 and ASDF 2?''}.
179
180
181
182
Furthermore, it is possible to upgrade from ASDF 1 to ASDF 2 on the fly.
For this reason, we have stopped supporting ASDF 1;
if you are using ASDF 1 and are experiencing any kind of issues or limitations,
we recommend you upgrade to ASDF 2
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
--- and we explain how to do that. @xref{Loading ASDF}.

Also note that ASDF is not to be confused with ASDF-Install.
ASDF-Install is not part of ASDF, but a separate piece of software.
ASDF-Install is also unmaintained and obsolete.
We recommend you use Quicklisp instead,
which works great and is being actively maintained.
If you want to download software from version control instead of tarballs,
so you may more easily modify it, we recommend clbuild.
192

193

194
@node Loading ASDF, Configuring ASDF, Introduction, Top
195
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
196
@chapter Loading ASDF
197
@vindex *central-registry*
198
@cindex link farm
199
@findex load-system
200
@findex require-system
201
202
203
204
205
@findex compile-system
@findex test-system
@cindex system directory designator
@findex operate
@findex oos
206

207
@c @menu
208
@c * Installing ASDF::
209
210
211
@c @end menu


212
213
@section Loading a pre-installed ASDF

Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
214
Most recent Lisp implementations include a copy of ASDF 2.
215
216
217
You can usually load this copy using Common Lisp's @code{require} function:

@lisp
218
(require "asdf")
219
220
@end lisp

Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
221
222
As of the writing of this manual,
the following implementations provide ASDF 2 this way:
223
abcl allegro ccl clisp cmucl ecl lispworks mkcl sbcl xcl.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
224
The following implementation doesn't provide it yet but will in an upcoming release:
225
scl.
226
227
The following implementations are obsolete, not actively maintained,
and most probably will never bundle it:
228
cormanlisp gcl genera mcl.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
229
230
231
232
233
234

If the implementation you are using doesn't provide ASDF 2,
see @pxref{Loading ASDF,,Loading an otherwise installed ASDF} below.
If that implementation is still actively maintained,
you may also send a bug report to your Lisp vendor and complain
about their failing to provide ASDF.
235

236
237
238
239
NB: all implementations except clisp also accept
@code{(require "ASDF")}, @code{(require 'asdf)} and @code{(require :asdf)}.
For portability's sake, you probably want to use @code{(require "asdf")}.

240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263

@section Checking whether ASDF is loaded

To check whether ASDF is properly loaded in your current Lisp image,
you can run this form:

@lisp
(asdf:asdf-version)
@end lisp

If it returns a string,
that is the version of ASDF that is currently installed.

If it raises an error,
then either ASDF is not loaded, or
you are using an old version of ASDF.

You can check whether an old version is loaded
by checking if the ASDF package is present.
The form below will allow you to programmatically determine
whether a recent version is loaded, an old version is loaded,
or none at all:

@lisp
264
265
266
267
(when (find-package :asdf)
  (or (symbol-value (or (find-symbol (string :*asdf-version*) :asdf)
                        (find-symbol (string :*asdf-revision*) :asdf)))
      :antique))
268
269
@end lisp

270
271
272
If it returns a version number as a string, that's the version of ASDF installed.
If it returns a version number as a list, that's an old CVS version from before 1.365.
If it returns the keyword @code{:ANTIQUE}, it's so old that's not funny.
273
274
If it returns @code{NIL} then ASDF is not installed.

Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
275
276
277
278
If you are experiencing problems with ASDF,
please try upgrading to the latest released version,
using the method below,
before you contact us and raise an issue.
279
280


281
282
@section Upgrading ASDF

283
284
285
286
287
288
If your implementation provides ASDF 2.27 or later,
you only need to @code{(require "asdf")}:
ASDF will automatically look whether an updated version of itself is available
amongst the regularly configured systems, before it compiles anything else.
See @pxref{Configuring ASDF} below.

289
If your implementation does provide ASDF 2 or later,
290
but not ASDF 2.27 or later,
291
and you want to upgrade to a more recent version,
292
293
294
you need to install and configure your ASDF as above,
and additionally, you need to explicitly tell ASDF to load itself,
right after you require your implementation's old ASDF 2:
295
296

@lisp
297
(require "asdf")
298
299
300
301
(asdf:load-system :asdf)
@end lisp

If on the other hand, your implementation only provides an old ASDF,
302
303
304
you will require a special configuration step and an old-style loading.
Take special attention to not omit the trailing directory separator
@code{/} at the end of your pathname:
305
306

@lisp
307
(require "asdf")
308
309
310
311
(push #p"@var{/path/to/new/asdf/}" asdf:*central-registry*)
(asdf:oos 'asdf:load-op :asdf)
@end lisp

312
Note that ASDF 1 won't redirect its output files,
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
or at least won't do it according to your usual ASDF 2 configuration.
You therefore need write access on the directory
where you install the new ASDF,
and make sure you're not using it
for multiple mutually incompatible implementations.
At worst, you may have to have multiple copies of the new ASDF,
e.g. one per implementation installation, to avoid clashes.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
320
321
322
Note that to our knowledge all implementations that provide ASDF
provide ASDF 2 in their latest release, so
you may want to upgrade your implementation rather than go through that hoop.
323

324
325
326
327
328
Finally, if you are using an unmaintained implementation
that does not provide ASDF at all,
see @pxref{Loading ASDF,,Loading an otherwise installed ASDF} below.

Note that there are some limitations to upgrading ASDF:
329
330
@itemize
@item
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
331
Previously loaded ASDF extension becomes invalid, and will need to be reloaded.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
332
This applies to e.g. CFFI-Grovel, or to hacks used by ironclad, etc.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
333
334
Since it isn't possible to automatically detect what extensions are present
that need to be invalidated,
335
ASDF will actually invalidate all previously loaded systems
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
336
when it is loaded on top of a different ASDF version,
337
338
339
starting with ASDF 2.014.8 (as far as releases go, 2.015);
and it will automatically attempt this self-upgrade as its very first step
starting with ASDF 2.27.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
340

341
@item
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
342
343
344
For this an many other reasons,
it important reason to load, configure and upgrade ASDF (if needed)
as one of the very first things done by your build and startup scripts.
345
Until all implementations provide ASDF 2.27 or later,
346
it is safer if you upgrade ASDF and its extensions as a special step
347
at the very beginning of whatever script you are running,
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
348
349
350
351
before you start using ASDF to load anything else;
even afterwards, it is still a good idea, to avoid having to
load and reload code twice as it gets invalidated.

352
@item
353
Until all implementations provide ASDF 2.27 or later,
354
it is unsafe to upgrade ASDF as part of loading a system
355
356
357
358
that depends on a more recent version of ASDF,
since the new one might shadow the old one while the old one is running,
and the running old one will be confused
when extensions are loaded into the new one.
359
In the meantime, we recommend that your systems should @emph{not} specify
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
@code{:depends-on (:asdf)}, or @code{:depends-on ((:version :asdf "2.010"))},
but instead that they check that a recent enough ASDF is installed,
with such code as:
@example
(unless (or #+asdf2 (asdf:version-satisfies
                     (asdf:asdf-version) *required-asdf-version*))
  (error "FOO requires ASDF ~A or later." *required-asdf-version*))
@end example
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
@item
Until all implementations provide ASDF 2.27 or later,
it is unsafe for a system to transitively depend on ASDF
and not directly depend on ASDF;
if any of the system you use either depends-on asdf,
system-depends-on asdf, or transitively does,
you should also do as well.
375
376
@end itemize

377

378
379
380
@section Loading an otherwise installed ASDF

If your implementation doesn't include ASDF,
381
382
if for some reason the upgrade somehow fails,
does not or cannot apply to your case,
383
384
385
386
387
388
you will have to install the file @file{asdf.lisp}
somewhere and load it with:

@lisp
(load "/path/to/your/installed/asdf.lisp")
@end lisp
389

390
The single file @file{asdf.lisp} is all you normally need to use ASDF.
391

392
You can extract this file from latest release tarball on the
393
@url{http://common-lisp.net/project/asdf/,ASDF website}.
394
If you are daring and willing to report bugs, you can get
395
the latest and greatest version of ASDF from its git repository.
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
@xref{Getting the latest version}.

For maximum convenience you might want to have ASDF loaded
whenever you start your Lisp implementation,
for example by loading it from the startup script or dumping a custom core
--- check your Lisp implementation's manual for details.

403

404
405
@node Configuring ASDF, Using ASDF, Loading ASDF, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413

@chapter Configuring ASDF

@section Configuring ASDF to find your systems

So it may compile and load your systems, ASDF must be configured to find
the @file{.asd} files that contain system definitions.

414
Since ASDF 2, the preferred way to configure where ASDF finds your systems is
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
415
416
417
the @code{source-registry} facility,
fully described in its own chapter of this manual.
@xref{Controlling where ASDF searches for systems}.
418
419
420

The default location for a user to install Common Lisp software is under
@file{~/.local/share/common-lisp/source/}.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
421
422
If you install software there (it can be a symlink),
you don't need further configuration.
423
424
If you're installing software yourself at a location that isn't standard,
you have to tell ASDF where you installed it. See below.
425
If you're using some tool to install software (e.g. Quicklisp),
426
427
428
the authors of that tool should already have configured ASDF.

The simplest way to add a path to your search path,
429
say @file{/home/luser/.asd-link-farm/}
430
431
is to create the directory
@file{~/.config/common-lisp/source-registry.conf.d/}
432
433
and there create a file with any name of your choice,
and with the type @file{conf},
434
for instance @file{42-asd-link-farm.conf}
435
436
containing the line:

437
@kbd{(:directory "/home/luser/.asd-link-farm/")}
438

439
If you want all the subdirectories under @file{/home/luser/lisp/}
440
441
to be recursively scanned for @file{.asd} files, instead use:

442
@kbd{(:tree "/home/luser/lisp/")}
443
444
445
446

Note that your Operating System distribution or your system administrator
may already have configured system-managed libraries for you.

447
448
449
450
451
The required @file{.conf} extension allows you to have disabled files
or editor backups (ending in @file{~}), and works portably
(for instance, it is a pain to allow both empty and non-empty extension on CLISP).
Excluded are files the name of which start with a @file{.} character.
It is customary to start the filename with two digits
452
453
454
455
456
that specify the order in which the directories will be scanned.

ASDF will automatically read your configuration
the first time you try to find a system.
You can reset the source-registry configuration with:
457

458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
@lisp
(asdf:clear-source-registry)
@end lisp

And you probably should do so before you dump your Lisp image,
if the configuration may change
between the machine where you save it at the time you save it
and the machine you resume it at the time you resume it.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
466
467
Actually, you should use @code{(asdf:clear-configuration)}
before you dump your Lisp image, which includes the above.
468
469


470
@section Configuring ASDF to find your systems --- old style
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494

The old way to configure ASDF to find your systems is by
@code{push}ing directory pathnames onto the variable
@code{asdf:*central-registry*}.

You must configure this variable between the time you load ASDF
and the time you first try to use it.
Loading and configuring ASDF presumably happen
as part of some initialization script that builds or starts
your Common Lisp software system.
(For instance, some SBCL users used to put it in their @file{~/.sbclrc}.)

The @code{asdf:*central-registry*} is empty by default in ASDF 2,
but is still supported for compatibility with ASDF 1.
When used, it takes precedence over the above source-registry@footnote{
It is possible to further customize
the system definition file search.
That's considered advanced use, and covered later:
search forward for
@code{*system-definition-search-functions*}.
@xref{Defining systems with defsystem}.}.

For instance, if you wanted ASDF to find the @file{.asd} file
@file{/home/me/src/foo/foo.asd} your initialization script
495
could after it loads ASDF with @code{(require "asdf")}
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
configure it with:

@lisp
(push "/home/me/src/foo/" asdf:*central-registry*)
@end lisp

Note the trailing slash: when searching for a system,
ASDF will evaluate each entry of the central registry
and coerce the result to a pathname@footnote{
ASDF will indeed call @code{EVAL} on each entry.
It will also skip entries that evaluate to @code{NIL}.

Strings and pathname objects are self-evaluating,
in which case the @code{EVAL} step does nothing;
but you may push arbitrary SEXP onto the central registry,
that will be evaluated to compute e.g. things that depend
on the value of shell variables or the identity of the user.

The variable @code{asdf:*central-registry*} is thus a list of
``system directory designators''.
A @dfn{system directory designator} is a form
which will be evaluated whenever a system is to be found,
and must evaluate to a directory to look in.
By ``directory'' here, we mean
``designator for a pathname with a supplied DIRECTORY component''.
}
at which point the presence of the trailing directory name separator
is necessary to tell Lisp that you're discussing a directory
rather than a file.

Typically, however, there are a lot of @file{.asd} files, and
a common idiom was to have to put
a bunch of @emph{symbolic links} to @file{.asd} files
in a common directory
and push @emph{that} directory (the ``link farm'')
to the
@code{asdf:*central-registry*}
instead of pushing each of the many involved directories
to the @code{asdf:*central-registry*}.
ASDF knows how to follow such @emph{symlinks}
to the actual file location when resolving the paths of system components
537
538
(on Windows, you can use Windows shortcuts instead of POSIX symlinks;
if you try aliases under MacOS, we are curious to hear about your experience).
539
540
541

For example, if @code{#p"/home/me/cl/systems/"} (note the trailing slash)
is a member of @code{*central-registry*}, you could set up the
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
system @var{foo} for loading with asdf with the following
commands at the shell:

@example
$ cd /home/me/cl/systems/
$ ln -s ~/src/foo/foo.asd .
@end example

550
551
552
553
This old style for configuring ASDF is not recommended for new users,
but it is supported for old users, and for users who want to programmatically
control what directories are added to the ASDF search path.

554

555
@section Configuring where ASDF stores object files
556
@findex clear-output-translations
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568

ASDF lets you configure where object files will be stored.
Sensible defaults are provided and
you shouldn't normally have to worry about it.

This allows the same source code repository may be shared
between several versions of several Common Lisp implementations,
between several users using different compilation options
and without write privileges on shared source directories, etc.
This also allows to keep source directories uncluttered
by plenty of object files.

569
Starting with ASDF 2, the @code{asdf-output-translations} facility
570
was added to ASDF itself, that controls where object files will be stored.
571
This facility is fully described in a chapter of this manual,
572
@ref{Controlling where ASDF saves compiled files}.
573
574
575
576
577
578

The simplest way to add a translation to your search path,
say from @file{/foo/bar/baz/quux/}
to @file{/where/i/want/my/fasls/}
is to create the directory
@file{~/.config/common-lisp/asdf-output-translations.conf.d/}
579
and there create a file with any name of your choice and the type @file{conf},
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
for instance @file{42-bazquux.conf}
containing the line:

@kbd{("/foo/bar/baz/quux/" "/where/i/want/my/fasls/")}

To disable output translations for source under a given directory,
say @file{/toto/tata/}
you can create a file @file{40-disable-toto.conf}
with the line:

@kbd{("/toto/tata/")}

To wholly disable output translations for all directories,
you can create a file @file{00-disable.conf}
with the line:

596
@kbd{(t t)}
597
598
599
600
601

Note that your Operating System distribution or your system administrator
may already have configured translations for you.
In absence of any configuration, the default is to redirect everything
under an implementation-dependent subdirectory of @file{~/.cache/common-lisp/}.
602
@xref{Controlling where ASDF searches for systems}, for full details.
603

604
605
606
607
608
The required @file{.conf} extension allows you to have disabled files
or editor backups (ending in @file{~}), and works portably
(for instance, it is a pain to allow both empty and non-empty extension on CLISP).
Excluded are files the name of which start with a @file{.} character.
It is customary to start the filename with two digits
609
610
611
612
613
that specify the order in which the directories will be scanned.

ASDF will automatically read your configuration
the first time you try to find a system.
You can reset the source-registry configuration with:
614
615

@lisp
616
(asdf:clear-output-translations)
617
618
@end lisp

619
620
621
622
And you probably should do so before you dump your Lisp image,
if the configuration may change
between the machine where you save it at the time you save it
and the machine you resume it at the time you resume it.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
623
624
(Once again, you should use @code{(asdf:clear-configuration)}
before you dump your Lisp image, which includes the above.)
625

626
Finally note that before ASDF 2,
627
628
629
630
other ASDF add-ons offered the same functionality,
each in subtly different and incompatible ways:
ASDF-Binary-Locations, cl-launch, common-lisp-controller.
ASDF-Binary-Locations is now not needed anymore and should not be used.
631
cl-launch 3.000 and common-lisp-controller 7.2 have been updated
632
to just delegate this functionality to ASDF.
633

634
635
@node Using ASDF, Defining systems with defsystem, Configuring ASDF, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
636

637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663

@section Resetting Configuration

When you dump and restore an image, or when you tweak your configuration,
you may want to reset the ASDF configuration.
For that you may use the following function:

@defun clear-configuration
   undoes any ASDF configuration,
   regarding source-registry or output-translations.
@end defun

If you use SBCL, CMUCL or SCL, you may use this snippet
so that the ASDF configuration be cleared automatically as you dump an image:

@example
#+(or cmu sbcl scl)
(pushnew 'clear-configuration
         #+(or cmu scl) ext:*before-save-initializations*
         #+sbcl sb-ext:*save-hooks*)
@end example

For compatibility with all Lisp implementations, however,
you might want instead your build script to explicitly call
@code{(asdf:clear-configuration)} at an appropriate moment before dumping.


664
665
666
667
668
669
@chapter Using ASDF

@section Loading a system

The system @var{foo} is loaded (and compiled, if necessary)
by evaluating the following Lisp form:
670
671

@example
672
(asdf:load-system :@var{foo})
673
674
@end example

675
On some implementations (namely recent versions of
676
677
ABCL, Allegro CL, Clozure CL, CMUCL, ECL, GNU CLISP,
LispWorks, MKCL, SBCL and XCL),
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
ASDF hooks into the @code{CL:REQUIRE} facility
and you can just use:

@example
(require :@var{foo})
@end example

685
686
In older versions of ASDF, you needed to use
@code{(asdf:oos 'asdf:load-op :@var{foo})}.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
687
688
If your ASDF is too old to provide @code{asdf:load-system} though
we recommend that you upgrade to ASDF 2.
689
@xref{Loading ASDF,,Loading an otherwise installed ASDF}.
690

691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
Note the name of a system is specified as a string or a symbol,
typically a keyword.
If a symbol (including a keyword), its name is taken and lowercased.
The name must be a suitable value for the @code{:name} initarg
to @code{make-pathname} in whatever filesystem the system is to be found.
The lower-casing-symbols behaviour is unconventional,
but was selected after some consideration.
Observations suggest that the type of systems we want to support
either have lowercase as customary case (unix, mac, windows)
or silently convert lowercase to uppercase (lpns),
so this makes more sense than attempting to use @code{:case :common},
which is reported not to work on some implementations

704

705
@section Other Operations
706

707
708
ASDF provides three commands for the most common system operations:
@code{load-system}, @code{compile-system} or @code{test-system}.
709
710
It also provides @code{require-system}, a version of @code{load-system}
that skips trying to update systems that are already loaded.
711

712
713
714
715
716
717
Because ASDF is an extensible system
for defining @emph{operations} on @emph{components},
it also provides a generic function @code{operate}
(which is usually abbreviated by @code{oos}).
You'll use @code{oos} whenever you want to do something beyond
compiling, loading and testing.
718

719
720
721
722
Output from ASDF and ASDF extensions are supposed to be sent
to the CL stream @code{*standard-output*},
and so rebinding that stream around calls to @code{asdf:operate}
should redirect all output from ASDF operations.
723

724
725
Reminder: before ASDF can operate on a system, however,
it must be able to find and load that system's definition.
726
@xref{Configuring ASDF,,Configuring ASDF to find your systems}.
727

728
729
730
731
732
733
734
For the advanced users, note that
@code{require-system} calls @code{load-system}
with keyword arguments @code{:force-not (loaded-systems)}.
@code{loaded-systems} returns a list of the names of loaded systems.
@code{load-system} applies @code{operate} with the operation from
@code{*load-system-operation*}, which by default is @code{load-op},
the system, and any provided keyword arguments.
735

736
737
738
739
740
@section Summary

To use ASDF:

@itemize
741
@item
742
Load ASDF itself into your Lisp image, either through
743
@code{(require "asdf")} or else through
744
@code{(load "/path/to/asdf.lisp")}.
745

746
@item
747
748
Make sure ASDF can find system definitions
thanks to proper source-registry configuration.
749

750
@item
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
751
Load a system with @code{(asdf:load-system :my-system)}
752
or use some other operation on some system of your choice.
753
754
755

@end itemize

756
@section Moving on
757

758
759
760
761
762
That's all you need to know to use ASDF to load systems written by others.
The rest of this manual deals with writing system definitions
for Common Lisp software you write yourself,
including how to extend ASDF to define new operation and component types.

763

764
@node Defining systems with defsystem, The object model of ASDF, Using ASDF, Top
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Defining systems with defsystem

This chapter describes how to use asdf to define systems and develop
software.


@menu
773
774
775
776
* The defsystem form::
* A more involved example::
* The defsystem grammar::
* Other code in .asd files::
777
778
779
780
781
782
@end menu

@node  The defsystem form, A more involved example, Defining systems with defsystem, Defining systems with defsystem
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section The defsystem form

783
784
785
786
787
788
Systems can be constructed programmatically
by instantiating components using @code{make-instance}.
Most of the time, however, it is much more practical to use
a static @code{defsystem} form.
This section begins with an example of a system definition,
then gives the full grammar of @code{defsystem}.
789

790
791
Let's look at a simple system.
This is a complete file that would
792
usually be saved as @file{hello-lisp.asd}:
793
794

@lisp
795
(in-package :asdf)
796

797
(defsystem "hello-lisp"
798
  :description "hello-lisp: a sample Lisp system."
799
  :version "0.2.1"
800
801
802
803
804
  :author "Joe User <joe@@example.com>"
  :licence "Public Domain"
  :components ((:file "packages")
               (:file "macros" :depends-on ("packages"))
               (:file "hello" :depends-on ("macros"))))
805
806
807
808
809
@end lisp

Some notes about this example:

@itemize
810
811

@item
812
813
814
815
The file starts with an @code{in-package} form
to use package @code{asdf}.
You could instead start your definition by using
a qualified name @code{asdf:defsystem}.
816

817
@item
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
If in addition to simply using @code{defsystem},
you are going to define functions,
create ASDF extension, globally bind symbols, etc.,
it is recommended that to avoid namespace pollution between systems,
you should create your own package for that purpose,
for instance replacing the above @code{(in-package :asdf)} with:

@lisp
(defpackage :foo-system
  (:use :cl :asdf))

(in-package :foo-system)
@end lisp
831
832

@item
833
834
835
The @code{defsystem} form defines a system named @code{hello-lisp}
that contains three source files:
@file{packages}, @file{macros} and @file{hello}.
836

837
838
839
840
841
842
843
@item
The file @file{macros} depends on @file{packages}
(presumably because the package it's in is defined in @file{packages}),
and the file @file{hello} depends on @file{macros}
(and hence, transitively on @file{packages}).
This means that ASDF will compile and load @file{packages} and @file{macros}
before starting the compilation of file @file{hello}.
844
845

@item
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
The files are located in the same directory
as the file with the system definition.
ASDF resolves symbolic links (or Windows shortcuts)
before loading the system definition file and
stores its location in the resulting system@footnote{
It is possible, though almost never necessary, to override this behaviour.}.
This is a good thing because the user can move the system sources
without having to edit the system definition.
854

855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
@c FIXME: Should have cross-reference to "Version specifiers" in the
@c defsystem grammar, but the cross-referencing is so broken by
@c insufficient node breakdown that I have not put one in.
@item
Make sure you know how the @code{:version} numbers will be parsed!  They
are parsed as period-separated lists of integers.  I.e., in the example,
@code{0.2.1} is to be interpreted, roughly speaking, as @code{(0 2 1)}.
In particular, version @code{0.2.1} is interpreted the same as
@code{0.0002.1} and is strictly version-less-than version @code{0.20.1},
even though the two are the same when interpreted as decimal fractions.
865
866
867
868
Instead of a string representing the version,
the @code{:version} argument can be an expression that is resolved to
such a string using the following trivial domain-specific language:
in addition to being a literal string, it can be an expression of the form
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
@code{(:read-file-form <pathname-or-string> :at <access-at-specifier>)},
which will be resolved by reading a form
in the specified pathname
(read as a subpathname of the current system if relative or a unix-namestring).
You may use an access-at specifier with the (optional) :at keyword,
by default the specifier is 0, meaning the first form is returned.

876
877
@cindex :version

878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
@end itemize

@node  A more involved example, The defsystem grammar, The defsystem form, Defining systems with defsystem
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section A more involved example

Let's illustrate some more involved uses of @code{defsystem} via a
slightly convoluted example:

@lisp
(defsystem "foo"
889
  :version "1.0.0"
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
  :components ((:module "mod"
                            :components ((:file "bar")
                                                  (:file"baz")
                                                  (:file "quux"))
                            :perform (compile-op :after (op c)
                                                  (do-something c))
                            :explain (compile-op :after (op c)
                                            (explain-something c)))
                         (:file "blah")))
899
900
@end lisp

901
902
903
904
905
906
907
The @code{:module} component named @code{"mod"} is a collection of three files,
which will be located in a subdirectory of the main code directory named
@file{mod} (this location can be overridden; see the discussion of the
@code{:pathname} option in @ref{The defsystem grammar}).

The method-form tokens provide a shorthand for defining methods on
particular components.  This part
908
909

@lisp
910
911
912
913
                :perform (compile-op :after (op c)
                          (do-something c))
                :explain (compile-op :after (op c)
                          (explain-something c))
914
915
916
917
918
919
@end lisp

has the effect of

@lisp
(defmethod perform :after ((op compile-op) (c (eql ...)))
920
           (do-something c))
921
(defmethod explain :after ((op compile-op) (c (eql ...)))
922
           (explain-something c))
923
924
@end lisp

925
where @code{...} is the component in question.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
926
In this case @code{...} would expand to something like
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943

@lisp
(find-component (find-system "foo") "mod")
@end lisp

For more details on the syntax of such forms, see @ref{The defsystem
grammar}.
For more details on what these methods do, @pxref{Operations} in
@ref{The object model of ASDF}.

@c The following plunge into the weeds is not appropriate in this
@c location. [2010/10/03:rpg]
@c note that although this also supports @code{:before} methods,
@c they may not do what you want them to ---
@c a @code{:before} method on perform @code{((op compile-op) (c (eql ...)))}
@c will run after all the dependencies and sub-components have been processed,
@c but before the component in question has been compiled.
944

945
@node  The defsystem grammar, Other code in .asd files, A more involved example, Defining systems with defsystem
946
947
948
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section The defsystem grammar

949
950
951
@c FIXME: @var typesetting not consistently used here.  We should either expand
@c its use to everywhere, or we should kill it everywhere.

952

953
@example
954
955
system-definition := ( defsystem system-designator @var{system-option}* )

956
957
system-option := :defsystem-depends-on system-list
                 | :weakly-depends-on @var{system-list}
958
                 | :class class-name (see discussion below)
959
960
961
962
963
                 | module-option
                 | option

module-option := :components component-list
                 | :serial [ t | nil ]
964

Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
965
option :=
966
        | :pathname pathname-specifier
967
        | :default-component-class class-name
968
        | :perform method-form
969
        | :explain method-form
970
        | :output-files method-form
971
        | :operation-done-p method-form
972
        | :if-feature feature-expression
973
974
        | :depends-on ( @var{dependency-def}* )
        | :in-order-to ( @var{dependency}+ )
975

976

977
978
system-list := ( @var{simple-component-name}* )

979
component-list := ( @var{component-def}* )
980

981
component-def  := ( component-type simple-component-name @var{option}* )
982

983
component-type := :system | :module | :file | :static-file | other-component-type
984

985
other-component-type := symbol-by-name (@pxref{The defsystem grammar,,Component types})
986

Gary King's avatar
Gary King committed
987
988
989
990
dependency-def := simple-component-name
               | ( :feature name )
               | ( :version simple-component-name version-specifier)

991
992
dependency := (dependent-op @var{requirement}+)
requirement := (required-op @var{required-component}+)
993
994
995
             | (feature feature-name)
dependent-op := operation-name
required-op := operation-name | feature
Gary King's avatar
Gary King committed
996
997
998

simple-component-name := string
                      |  symbol
999

1000
1001
pathname-specifier := pathname | string | symbol

1002
method-form := (operation-name qual lambda-list @&rest body)
1003
qual := method qualifier
1004
1005

component-dep-fail-option := :fail | :try-next | :ignore
1006
1007
1008

feature-expression := keyword | (:and @var{feature-expression}*)
                      | (:or @var{feature-expression}*) | (:not @var{feature-expression})
1009
@end example
1010

1011

1012
1013
@subsection Component names

1014
1015
Component names (@code{simple-component-name})
may be either strings or symbols.
1016

1017
@subsection Component types
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024

Component type names, even if expressed as keywords, will be looked up
by name in the current package and in the asdf package, if not found in
the current package.  So a component type @code{my-component-type}, in
the current package @code{my-system-asd} can be specified as
@code{:my-component-type}, or @code{my-component-type}.

1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
@subsection System class names

A system class name will be looked up in the same way as a Component
type (see above).  Typically, one will not need to specify a system
class name, unless using a non-standard system class defined in some
ASDF extension, typically loaded through @code{DEFSYSTEM-DEPENDS-ON},
see below.  For such class names in the ASDF package, we recommend that
the @code{:class} option be specified using a keyword symbol, such as

@example
:class :MY-NEW-SYSTEM-SUBCLASS
@end example

This practice will ensure that package name conflicts are avoided.
Otherwise, the symbol @code{MY-NEW-SYSTEM-SUBCLASS} will be read into
the current package @emph{before} it has been exported from the ASDF
extension loaded by @code{:defsystem-depends-on}, causing a name
conflict in the current package.

1044
@subsection Defsystem depends on
1045
@cindex :defsystem-depends-on
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052

The @code{:defsystem-depends-on} option to @code{defsystem} allows the
programmer to specify another ASDF-defined system or set of systems that
must be loaded @emph{before} the system definition is processed.
Typically this is used to load an ASDF extension that is used in the
system definition.

1053
1054
1055
@subsection Weakly depends on 
@cindex :weakly-depends-on

1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
We do @emph{NOT} recommend you use this feature.
If you are tempted to write a system @var{foo}
that weakly-depends-on a system @var{bar},
we recommend that you should instead
write system @var{foo} in a parametric way,
and offer some special variable and/or some hook to specialize its behavior;
then you should write a system @var{foo+bar}
that does the hooking of things together.

The (deprecated) @code{:weakly-depends-on} option to @code{defsystem}
allows the programmer to specify another ASDF-defined system or set of systems
that ASDF should @emph{try} to load,
but need not load in order to be successful.
Typically this is used if there are a number of systems
that, if present, could provide additional functionality,
but which are not necessary for basic function.
1072

1073
1074
1075
1076
Currently, although it is specified to be an option only to @code{defsystem},
this option is accepted at any component, but it probably
only makes sense at the @code{defsystem} level.
Programmers are cautioned not
1077
1078
1079
to use this component option except at the @code{defsystem} level, as
this anomalous behavior may be removed without warning.

1080
@subsection Pathname specifiers
1081
@cindex pathname specifiers
1082

1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
A pathname specifier (@code{pathname-specifier})
may be a pathname, a string or a symbol.
When no pathname specifier is given for a component,
which is the usual case, the component name itself is used.

If a string is given, which is the usual case,
the string will be interpreted as a Unix-style pathname
where @code{/} characters will be interpreted as directory separators.
Usually, Unix-style relative pathnames are used
(i.e. not starting with @code{/}, as opposed to absolute pathnames);
they are relative to the path of the parent component.
Finally, depending on the @code{component-type},
the pathname may be interpreted as either a file or a directory,
and if it's a file,
a file type may be added corresponding to the @code{component-type},
or else it will be extracted from the string itself (if applicable).

For instance, the @code{component-type} @code{:module}
wants a directory pathname, and so a string @code{"foo/bar"}
will be interpreted as the pathname @file{#p"foo/bar/"}.
On the other hand, the @code{component-type} @code{:file}
wants a file of type @code{lisp}, and so a string @code{"foo/bar"}
will be interpreted as the pathname @file{#p"foo/bar.lisp"},
and a string @code{"foo/bar.quux"}
will be interpreted as the pathname @file{#p"foo/bar.quux.lisp"}.
Finally, the @code{component-type} @code{:static-file}
wants a file without specifying a type, and so a string @code{"foo/bar"}
will be interpreted as the pathname @file{#p"foo/bar"},
and a string @code{"foo/bar.quux"}
will be interpreted as the pathname @file{#p"foo/bar.quux"}.

1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
ASDF does not interpret the string @code{".."} to designate the parent
directory.  This string will be passed through to the underlying
operating system for interpretation.  We @emph{believe} that this will
work on all platforms where ASDF is deployed, but do not guarantee this
behavior.  A pathname object with a relative directory component of
@code{:up} or @code{:back} is the only guaranteed way to specify a
parent directory.

1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
If a symbol is given, it will be translated into a string,
and downcased in the process.
The downcasing of symbols is unconventional,
but was selected after some consideration.
Observations suggest that the type of systems we want to support
either have lowercase as customary case (Unix, Mac, windows)
or silently convert lowercase to uppercase (lpns),
so this makes more sense than attempting to use @code{:case :common}
as argument to @code{make-pathname},
which is reported not to work on some implementations.

1133
Pathname objects may be given to override the path for a component.
1134
1135
Such objects are typically specified using reader macros such as @code{#p}
or @code{#.(make-pathname ...)}.
1136
1137
1138
Note however, that @code{#p...} is a shorthand for @code{#.(parse-namestring ...)}
and that the behavior of @code{parse-namestring} is completely non-portable,
unless you are using Common Lisp @code{logical-pathname}s
1139
(@pxref{The defsystem grammar,,Using logical pathnames}, below).
1140
1141
1142
1143
Pathnames made with @code{#.(make-pathname ...)}
can usually be done more easily with the string syntax above.
The only case that you really need a pathname object is to override
the component-type default file type for a given component.
1144
Therefore, pathname objects should only rarely be used.
1145
Unhappily, ASDF 1 didn't properly support
1146
1147
parsing component names as strings specifying paths with directories,
and the cumbersome @code{#.(make-pathname ...)} syntax had to be used.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
1148
1149
An alternative to @code{#.} read-time evaluation is to use
@code{(eval `(defsystem ... ,pathname ...))}.
1150

Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
1151
Note that when specifying pathname objects,
1152
1153
1154
ASDF does not do any special interpretation of the pathname
influenced by the component type, unlike the procedure for
pathname-specifying strings.
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
On the one hand, you have to be careful to provide a pathname that correctly
fulfills whatever constraints are required from that component type
(e.g. naming a directory or a file with appropriate type);
on the other hand, you can circumvent the file type that would otherwise
be forced upon you if you were specifying a string.
1160

1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
@subsection Version specifiers
@cindex version specifiers
@cindex :version

Version specifiers are parsed as period-separated lists of integers.  I.e., in the example,
@code{0.2.1} is to be interpreted, roughly speaking, as @code{(0 2 1)}.
In particular, version @code{0.2.1} is interpreted the same as
@code{0.0002.1} and is strictly version-less-than version @code{0.20.1},
even though the two are the same when interpreted as decimal fractions.

System definers are encouraged to use version identifiers of the form
@var{x}.@var{y}.@var{z} for major version, minor version (compatible
API) and patch level.

@xref{Common attributes of components}.

1177

1178
@subsection Using logical pathnames
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
1179
@cindex logical pathnames
1180

1181
1182
1183
1184
We do not generally recommend the use of logical pathnames,
especially not so to newcomers to Common Lisp.
However, we do support the use of logical pathnames by old timers,
when such is their preference.
1185

1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
To use logical pathnames,
you will have to provide a pathname object as a @code{:pathname} specifier
to components that use it, using such syntax as
@code{#p"LOGICAL-HOST:absolute;path;to;component.lisp"}.

1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
You only have to specify such logical pathname
for your system or some top-level component.
Sub-components' relative pathnames,
specified using the string syntax for names,
will be properly merged with the pathnames of their parents.
1196
1197
1198
The specification of a logical pathname host however is @emph{not}
otherwise directly supported in the ASDF syntax
for pathname specifiers as strings.
1199

1200
The @code{asdf-output-translation} layer will
1201
1202
1203
avoid trying to resolve and translate logical pathnames.
The advantage of this is that
you can define yourself what translations you want to use
1204
with the logical pathname facility.
1205
1206
The disadvantage is that if you do not define such translations,
any system that uses logical pathnames will behave differently under
1207
asdf-output-translations than other systems you use.
1208

1209
If you wish to use logical pathnames you will have to configure the
1210
1211
1212
translations yourself before they may be used.
ASDF currently provides no specific support
for defining logical pathname translations.
1213

1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
Note that the reasons we do not recommend logical pathnames are that
(1) there is no portable way to set up logical pathnames before they are used,
(2) logical pathnames are limited to only portably use
a single character case, digits and hyphens.
While you can solve the first issue on your own,
describing how to do it on each of fifteen implementations supported by ASDF
is more than we can document.
As for the second issue, mind that the limitation is notably enforced on SBCL,
and that you therefore can't portably violate the limitations
but must instead define some encoding of your own and add individual mappings
to name physical pathnames that do not fit the restrictions.
This can notably be a problem when your Lisp files are part of a larger project
in which it is common to name files or directories in a way that
includes the version numbers of supported protocols,
or in which files are shared with software written
in different programming languages where conventions include the use of
underscores, dots or CamelCase in pathnames.

1232

1233
@subsection Serial dependencies
1234
@cindex serial dependencies
1235

1236
If the @code{:serial t} option is specified for a module,
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
1237
ASDF will add dependencies for each child component,
1238
1239
on all the children textually preceding it.
This is done as if by @code{:depends-on}.
1240
1241
1242

@lisp
:serial t
1243
:components ((:file "a") (:file "b") (:file "c"))
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
@end lisp

is equivalent to

@lisp
1249
:components ((:file "a")
1250
1251
             (:file "b" :depends-on ("a"))
             (:file "c" :depends-on ("a" "b")))
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
@end lisp


@subsection Source location

The @code{:pathname} option is optional in all cases for systems
1258
1259
defined via @code{defsystem},
and in the usual case the user is recommended not to supply it.
1260

1261
Instead, ASDF follows a hairy set of rules that are designed so that
1262
@enumerate
1263
@item
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
1.647:    
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
1264
1265
@code{find-system}
will load a system from disk