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\input texinfo          @c -*- texinfo -*-
@c %**start of header
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@setfilename asdf.info
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@settitle ASDF Manual
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@c %**end of header

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@c We use @&key, etc to escape & from TeX in lambda lists --
@c so we need to define them for info as well.
@macro &allow-other-keys
&allow-other-keys
@end macro
@macro &optional
&optional
@end macro
@macro &rest
&rest
@end macro
@macro &key
&key
@end macro
@macro &body
&body
@end macro

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@c for install-info
@dircategory Software development
@direntry
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* asdf: (asdf).           Another System Definition Facility (for Common Lisp)
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@end direntry

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@copying
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This manual describes ASDF, a system definition facility
for Common Lisp programs and libraries.
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You can find the latest version of this manual at
@url{http://common-lisp.net/project/asdf/asdf.html}.

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ASDF Copyright @copyright{} 2001-2010 Daniel Barlow and contributors.
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This manual Copyright @copyright{} 2001-2010 Daniel Barlow and contributors.

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This manual revised @copyright{} 2009-2010 Robert P. Goldman and Francois-Rene Rideau.
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Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
``Software''), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be
included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS'', WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE
LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION
OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

@end copying



@titlepage
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@title ASDF: Another System Definition Facility
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@c The following two commands start the copyright page.
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@insertcopying
@end titlepage
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@c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
@contents

@c -------------------

@ifnottex

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@node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
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@top asdf: another system definition facility
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@insertcopying

@menu
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* Introduction::
* Loading ASDF::
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* Configuring ASDF::
* Using ASDF::
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* Defining systems with defsystem::
* The object model of ASDF::
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* Controlling where ASDF searches for systems::
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* Controlling where ASDF saves compiled files::
* Error handling::
* Miscellaneous additional functionality::
* Getting the latest version::
* FAQ::
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* TODO list::
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* Inspiration::
* Concept Index::
* Function and Class Index::
* Variable Index::
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@c @detailmenu
@c  --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
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@c Defining systems with defsystem
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@c * The defsystem form::
@c * A more involved example::
@c * The defsystem grammar::
@c * Other code in .asd files::
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@c The object model of ASDF
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@c * Operations::
@c * Components::
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@c Operations
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@c * Predefined operations of ASDF::
@c * Creating new operations::
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@c Components
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@c * Common attributes of components::
@c * Pre-defined subclasses of component::
@c * Creating new component types::
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@c properties
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@c * Pre-defined subclasses of component::
@c * Creating new component types::
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@c @end detailmenu
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@end menu

@end ifnottex

@c -------------------

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@node Introduction, Loading ASDF, Top, Top
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@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Introduction
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@cindex ASDF-related features
@vindex *features*
@cindex Testing for ASDF
@cindex ASDF versions
@cindex :asdf
@cindex :asdf2
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ASDF is Another System Definition Facility:
a tool for specifying how systems of Common Lisp software
are comprised of components (sub-systems and files),
and how to operate on these components in the right order
so that they can be compiled, loaded, tested, etc.

ASDF presents three faces:
one for users of Common Lisp software who want to reuse other people's code,
one for writers of Common Lisp software who want to specify how to build their systems,
one for implementers of Common Lisp extensions who want to extend the build system.
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@xref{Using ASDF,,Loading a system},
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to learn how to use ASDF to load a system.
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@xref{Defining systems with defsystem},
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to learn how to define a system of your own.
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@xref{The object model of ASDF}, for a description of
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the ASDF internals and how to extend ASDF.
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@emph{Nota Bene}:
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We have released ASDF 2.000 on May 31st 2010.
It hopefully will have been it included
in all CL maintained implementations shortly afterwards.
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@xref{FAQ,,``What has changed between ASDF 1 and ASDF 2?''}.
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@node Loading ASDF, Configuring ASDF, Introduction, Top
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@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
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@chapter Loading ASDF
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@vindex *central-registry*
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@cindex link farm
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@findex load-system
@findex compile-system
@findex test-system
@cindex system directory designator
@findex operate
@findex oos
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@c @menu
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@c * Installing ASDF::
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@c @end menu


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@section Loading a pre-installed ASDF

Many Lisp implementations include a copy of ASDF.
You can usually load this copy using Common Lisp's @code{require} function:

@lisp
(require :asdf)
@end lisp

Consult your Lisp implementation's documentation for details.

Hopefully, ASDF 2 will soon be bundled with every Common Lisp implementation,
and you can load it that way.
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If it is not, see @pxref{Loading ASDF,,Loading an otherwise installed ASDF} below.
if you are using the latest version of your Lisp vendor's software,
you may also send a bug report to your Lisp vendor and complain about
their failing to provide ASDF.
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@section Checking whether ASDF is loaded

To check whether ASDF is properly loaded in your current Lisp image,
you can run this form:

@lisp
(asdf:asdf-version)
@end lisp

If it returns a string,
that is the version of ASDF that is currently installed.

If it raises an error,
then either ASDF is not loaded, or
you are using an old version of ASDF.

You can check whether an old version is loaded
by checking if the ASDF package is present.
The form below will allow you to programmatically determine
whether a recent version is loaded, an old version is loaded,
or none at all:

@lisp
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(or #+asdf2 (asdf:asdf-version) #+asdf :old)
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@end lisp

If it returns a version number, that's the version of ASDF installed.
If it returns the keyword @code{:OLD},
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then you're using an old version of ASDF (from before 1.635).
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If it returns @code{NIL} then ASDF is not installed.

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If you are running a version older than 2.004,
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we recommend that you load a newer ASDF using the method below.


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@section Upgrading ASDF

If your implementation does provide ASDF 2 or later,
and you want to upgrade to a more recent version,
just install ASDF like any other package
(see @pxref{Loading ASDF,,Loading an otherwise installed ASDF} below),
configure ASDF as usual (see @pxref{Configuring ASDF} below),
and upgrade with:

@lisp
(require :asdf)
(asdf:load-system :asdf)
@end lisp

If on the other hand, your implementation only provides an old ASDF,
you will require a special configuration step and an old-style loading:

@lisp
(require :asdf)
(push #p"@var{/path/to/new/asdf/}" asdf:*central-registry*)
(asdf:oos 'asdf:load-op :asdf)
@end lisp

Don't forget the trailing @code{/} at the end of your pathname.

Also, note that older versions of ASDF won't redirect their output,
or at least won't do it according to your usual ASDF 2 configuration.
You therefore need write access on the directory
where you install the new ASDF,
and make sure you're not using it
for multiple mutually incompatible implementations.
At worst, you may have to have multiple copies of the new ASDF,
e.g. one per implementation installation, to avoid clashes.

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Finally, note that there are some limitations to upgrading ASDF:
@itemize
@item
Any ASDF extension is invalidated, and will need to be reloaded.
@item
It is safer if you upgrade ASDF and its extensions as a special step
at the very beginning of whatever script you are running,
before you start using ASDF to load anything else.
@end itemize

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@section Loading an otherwise installed ASDF

If your implementation doesn't include ASDF,
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if for some reason the upgrade somehow fails,
does not or cannot apply to your case,
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you will have to install the file @file{asdf.lisp}
somewhere and load it with:

@lisp
(load "/path/to/your/installed/asdf.lisp")
@end lisp
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The single file @file{asdf.lisp} is all you normally need to use ASDF.
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You can extract this file from latest release tarball on the
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@url{http://common-lisp.net/project/asdf/,ASDF website}.
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If you are daring and willing to report bugs, you can get
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the latest and greatest version of ASDF from its git repository.
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@xref{Getting the latest version}.

For maximum convenience you might want to have ASDF loaded
whenever you start your Lisp implementation,
for example by loading it from the startup script or dumping a custom core
--- check your Lisp implementation's manual for details.

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@node Configuring ASDF, Using ASDF, Loading ASDF, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
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@chapter Configuring ASDF

@section Configuring ASDF to find your systems

So it may compile and load your systems, ASDF must be configured to find
the @file{.asd} files that contain system definitions.

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Since ASDF 2, the preferred way to configure where ASDF finds your systems is
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the @code{source-registry} facility,
fully described in its own chapter of this manual.
@xref{Controlling where ASDF searches for systems}.
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The default location for a user to install Common Lisp software is under
@file{~/.local/share/common-lisp/source/}.
If you install software there, you don't need further configuration.
If you're installing software yourself at a location that isn't standard,
you have to tell ASDF where you installed it. See below.
If you're using some tool to install software,
the authors of that tool should already have configured ASDF.

The simplest way to add a path to your search path,
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say @file{/home/luser/.asd-link-farm/}
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is to create the directory
@file{~/.config/common-lisp/source-registry.conf.d/}
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and there create a file with any name of your choice but the type @file{conf},
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for instance @file{42-asd-link-farm.conf}
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containing the line:

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@kbd{(:directory "/home/luser/.asd-link-farm/")}
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If you want all the subdirectories under @file{/home/luser/lisp/}
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to be recursively scanned for @file{.asd} files, instead use:

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@kbd{(:tree "/home/luser/lisp/")}
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Note that your Operating System distribution or your system administrator
may already have configured system-managed libraries for you.

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The required @file{.conf} extension allows you to have disabled files
or editor backups (ending in @file{~}), and works portably
(for instance, it is a pain to allow both empty and non-empty extension on CLISP).
Excluded are files the name of which start with a @file{.} character.
It is customary to start the filename with two digits
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that specify the order in which the directories will be scanned.

ASDF will automatically read your configuration
the first time you try to find a system.
You can reset the source-registry configuration with:
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@lisp
(asdf:clear-source-registry)
@end lisp

And you probably should do so before you dump your Lisp image,
if the configuration may change
between the machine where you save it at the time you save it
and the machine you resume it at the time you resume it.


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@section Configuring ASDF to find your systems -- old style
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The old way to configure ASDF to find your systems is by
@code{push}ing directory pathnames onto the variable
@code{asdf:*central-registry*}.

You must configure this variable between the time you load ASDF
and the time you first try to use it.
Loading and configuring ASDF presumably happen
as part of some initialization script that builds or starts
your Common Lisp software system.
(For instance, some SBCL users used to put it in their @file{~/.sbclrc}.)

The @code{asdf:*central-registry*} is empty by default in ASDF 2,
but is still supported for compatibility with ASDF 1.
When used, it takes precedence over the above source-registry@footnote{
It is possible to further customize
the system definition file search.
That's considered advanced use, and covered later:
search forward for
@code{*system-definition-search-functions*}.
@xref{Defining systems with defsystem}.}.

For instance, if you wanted ASDF to find the @file{.asd} file
@file{/home/me/src/foo/foo.asd} your initialization script
could after it loads ASDF with @code{(require :asdf)}
configure it with:

@lisp
(push "/home/me/src/foo/" asdf:*central-registry*)
@end lisp

Note the trailing slash: when searching for a system,
ASDF will evaluate each entry of the central registry
and coerce the result to a pathname@footnote{
ASDF will indeed call @code{EVAL} on each entry.
It will also skip entries that evaluate to @code{NIL}.

Strings and pathname objects are self-evaluating,
in which case the @code{EVAL} step does nothing;
but you may push arbitrary SEXP onto the central registry,
that will be evaluated to compute e.g. things that depend
on the value of shell variables or the identity of the user.

The variable @code{asdf:*central-registry*} is thus a list of
``system directory designators''.
A @dfn{system directory designator} is a form
which will be evaluated whenever a system is to be found,
and must evaluate to a directory to look in.
By ``directory'' here, we mean
``designator for a pathname with a supplied DIRECTORY component''.
}
at which point the presence of the trailing directory name separator
is necessary to tell Lisp that you're discussing a directory
rather than a file.

Typically, however, there are a lot of @file{.asd} files, and
a common idiom was to have to put
a bunch of @emph{symbolic links} to @file{.asd} files
in a common directory
and push @emph{that} directory (the ``link farm'')
to the
@code{asdf:*central-registry*}
instead of pushing each of the many involved directories
to the @code{asdf:*central-registry*}.
ASDF knows how to follow such @emph{symlinks}
to the actual file location when resolving the paths of system components
(on Windows, you can use Windows shortcuts instead of POSIX symlinks).

For example, if @code{#p"/home/me/cl/systems/"} (note the trailing slash)
is a member of @code{*central-registry*}, you could set up the
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system @var{foo} for loading with asdf with the following
commands at the shell:

@example
$ cd /home/me/cl/systems/
$ ln -s ~/src/foo/foo.asd .
@end example

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This old style for configuring ASDF is not recommended for new users,
but it is supported for old users, and for users who want to programmatically
control what directories are added to the ASDF search path.

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@section Configuring where ASDF stores object files
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@findex clear-output-locations
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ASDF lets you configure where object files will be stored.
Sensible defaults are provided and
you shouldn't normally have to worry about it.

This allows the same source code repository may be shared
between several versions of several Common Lisp implementations,
between several users using different compilation options
and without write privileges on shared source directories, etc.
This also allows to keep source directories uncluttered
by plenty of object files.

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Starting with ASDF 2, the @code{asdf-output-translations} facility
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was added to ASDF itself, that controls where object files will be stored.
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This facility is fully described in a chapter of this manual,
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@ref{Controlling where ASDF saves compiled files}.
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The simplest way to add a translation to your search path,
say from @file{/foo/bar/baz/quux/}
to @file{/where/i/want/my/fasls/}
is to create the directory
@file{~/.config/common-lisp/asdf-output-translations.conf.d/}
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and there create a file with any name of your choice and the type @file{conf},
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for instance @file{42-bazquux.conf}
containing the line:

@kbd{("/foo/bar/baz/quux/" "/where/i/want/my/fasls/")}

To disable output translations for source under a given directory,
say @file{/toto/tata/}
you can create a file @file{40-disable-toto.conf}
with the line:

@kbd{("/toto/tata/")}

To wholly disable output translations for all directories,
you can create a file @file{00-disable.conf}
with the line:

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@kbd{(t t)}
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Note that your Operating System distribution or your system administrator
may already have configured translations for you.
In absence of any configuration, the default is to redirect everything
under an implementation-dependent subdirectory of @file{~/.cache/common-lisp/}.
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@xref{Controlling where ASDF searches for systems}, for full details.
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The required @file{.conf} extension allows you to have disabled files
or editor backups (ending in @file{~}), and works portably
(for instance, it is a pain to allow both empty and non-empty extension on CLISP).
Excluded are files the name of which start with a @file{.} character.
It is customary to start the filename with two digits
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that specify the order in which the directories will be scanned.

ASDF will automatically read your configuration
the first time you try to find a system.
You can reset the source-registry configuration with:
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@lisp
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(asdf:clear-output-translations)
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@end lisp

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And you probably should do so before you dump your Lisp image,
if the configuration may change
between the machine where you save it at the time you save it
and the machine you resume it at the time you resume it.

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Finally note that before ASDF 2,
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other ASDF add-ons offered the same functionality,
each in subtly different and incompatible ways:
ASDF-Binary-Locations, cl-launch, common-lisp-controller.
ASDF-Binary-Locations is now not needed anymore and should not be used.
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cl-launch 3.000 and common-lisp-controller 7.2 have been updated
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to just delegate this functionality to ASDF.
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@node Using ASDF, Defining systems with defsystem, Configuring ASDF, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
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@chapter Using ASDF

@section Loading a system

The system @var{foo} is loaded (and compiled, if necessary)
by evaluating the following Lisp form:
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@example
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(asdf:load-system :@var{foo})
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@end example

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On some implementations (namely ABCL, Clozure CL, CMUCL, ECL and SBCL),
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ASDF hooks into the @code{CL:REQUIRE} facility
and you can just use:

@example
(require :@var{foo})
@end example

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In older versions of ASDF, you needed to use
@code{(asdf:oos 'asdf:load-op :@var{foo})}.
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If your ASDF is too old to provide @code{asdf:load-system} though
we recommend that you upgrade to ASDF 2.
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@xref{Loading ASDF,,Loading an otherwise installed ASDF}.
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@section Other Operations
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ASDF provides three commands for the most common system operations:
@code{load-system}, @code{compile-system} or @code{test-system}.
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Because ASDF is an extensible system
for defining @emph{operations} on @emph{components},
it also provides a generic function @code{operate}
(which is usually abbreviated by @code{oos}).
You'll use @code{oos} whenever you want to do something beyond
compiling, loading and testing.
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Output from ASDF and ASDF extensions are supposed to be sent
to the CL stream @code{*standard-output*},
and so rebinding that stream around calls to @code{asdf:operate}
should redirect all output from ASDF operations.
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Reminder: before ASDF can operate on a system, however,
it must be able to find and load that system's definition.
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@xref{Configuring ASDF,,Configuring ASDF to find your systems}.
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@section Summary

To use ASDF:

@itemize
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@item
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Load ASDF itself into your Lisp image, either through
@code{(require :asdf)} or else through
@code{(load "/path/to/asdf.lisp")}.
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@item
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Make sure ASDF can find system definitions
thanks to proper source-registry configuration.
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@item
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Load a system with @code{(load-system :my-system)}
or use some other operation on some system of your choice.
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@end itemize

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@section Moving on
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That's all you need to know to use ASDF to load systems written by others.
The rest of this manual deals with writing system definitions
for Common Lisp software you write yourself,
including how to extend ASDF to define new operation and component types.

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@node Defining systems with defsystem, The object model of ASDF, Using ASDF, Top
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@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Defining systems with defsystem

This chapter describes how to use asdf to define systems and develop
software.


@menu
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* The defsystem form::
* A more involved example::
* The defsystem grammar::
* Other code in .asd files::
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@end menu

@node  The defsystem form, A more involved example, Defining systems with defsystem, Defining systems with defsystem
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section The defsystem form

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Systems can be constructed programmatically
by instantiating components using @code{make-instance}.
Most of the time, however, it is much more practical to use
a static @code{defsystem} form.
This section begins with an example of a system definition,
then gives the full grammar of @code{defsystem}.
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Let's look at a simple system.
This is a complete file that would
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usually be saved as @file{hello-lisp.asd}:
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@lisp
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(in-package :asdf)
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(defsystem "hello-lisp"
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  :description "hello-lisp: a sample Lisp system."
  :version "0.2"
  :author "Joe User <joe@@example.com>"
  :licence "Public Domain"
  :components ((:file "packages")
               (:file "macros" :depends-on ("packages"))
               (:file "hello" :depends-on ("macros"))))
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@end lisp

Some notes about this example:

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@item
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The file starts with an @code{in-package} form
to use package @code{asdf}.
You could instead start your definition by using
a qualified name @code{asdf:defsystem}.
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@item
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If in addition to simply using @code{defsystem},
you are going to define functions,
create ASDF extension, globally bind symbols, etc.,
it is recommended that to avoid namespace pollution between systems,
you should create your own package for that purpose,
for instance replacing the above @code{(in-package :asdf)} with:

@lisp
(defpackage :foo-system
  (:use :cl :asdf))

(in-package :foo-system)
@end lisp
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@item
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The @code{defsystem} form defines a system named @code{hello-lisp}
that contains three source files:
@file{packages}, @file{macros} and @file{hello}.
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@item
The file @file{macros} depends on @file{packages}
(presumably because the package it's in is defined in @file{packages}),
and the file @file{hello} depends on @file{macros}
(and hence, transitively on @file{packages}).
This means that ASDF will compile and load @file{packages} and @file{macros}
before starting the compilation of file @file{hello}.
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@item
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The files are located in the same directory
as the file with the system definition.
ASDF resolves symbolic links (or Windows shortcuts)
before loading the system definition file and
stores its location in the resulting system@footnote{
It is possible, though almost never necessary, to override this behaviour.}.
This is a good thing because the user can move the system sources
without having to edit the system definition.
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@end itemize

@node  A more involved example, The defsystem grammar, The defsystem form, Defining systems with defsystem
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section A more involved example

Let's illustrate some more involved uses of @code{defsystem} via a
slightly convoluted example:

@lisp
(defsystem "foo"
  :version "1.0"
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  :components ((:module "foo" :components ((:file "bar") (:file"baz")
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                                           (:file "quux"))
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                :perform (compile-op :after (op c)
                          (do-something c))
                :explain (compile-op :after (op c)
                          (explain-something c)))
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               (:file "blah")))
@end lisp

The method-form tokens need explaining: essentially, this part:

@lisp
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                :perform (compile-op :after (op c)
                          (do-something c))
                :explain (compile-op :after (op c)
                          (explain-something c))
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@end lisp

has the effect of

@lisp
(defmethod perform :after ((op compile-op) (c (eql ...)))
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           (do-something c))
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(defmethod explain :after ((op compile-op) (c (eql ...)))
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           (explain-something c))
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@end lisp

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where @code{...} is the component in question;
note that although this also supports @code{:before} methods,
they may not do what you want them to ---
a @code{:before} method on perform @code{((op compile-op) (c (eql ...)))}
will run after all the dependencies and sub-components have been processed,
but before the component in question has been compiled.
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@node  The defsystem grammar, Other code in .asd files, A more involved example, Defining systems with defsystem
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@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section The defsystem grammar

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@example
system-definition := ( defsystem system-designator @var{option}* )
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option := :components component-list
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        | :pathname pathname-specifier
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        | :default-component-class
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        | :perform method-form
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        | :explain method-form
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        | :output-files method-form
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        | :operation-done-p method-form
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        | :depends-on ( @var{dependency-def}* )
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        | :serial [ t | nil ]
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        | :in-order-to ( @var{dependency}+ )
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component-list := ( @var{component-def}* )
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component-def  := ( component-type simple-component-name @var{option}* )
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component-type := :system | :module | :file | :static-file | other-component-type
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other-component-type := symbol-by-name (@pxref{The defsystem grammar,,Component types})
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dependency-def := simple-component-name
               | ( :feature name )
               | ( :version simple-component-name version-specifier)

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dependency := (dependent-op @var{requirement}+)
requirement := (required-op @var{required-component}+)
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             | (feature feature-name)
dependent-op := operation-name
required-op := operation-name | feature
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simple-component-name := string
                      |  symbol
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pathname-specifier := pathname | string | symbol

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method-form := (operation-name qual lambda-list @&rest body)
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qual := method qualifier
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@end example
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@subsection Component names

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Component names (@code{simple-component-name})
may be either strings or symbols.
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@subsection Component types
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Component type names, even if expressed as keywords, will be looked up
by name in the current package and in the asdf package, if not found in
the current package.  So a component type @code{my-component-type}, in
the current package @code{my-system-asd} can be specified as
@code{:my-component-type}, or @code{my-component-type}.

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@subsection Pathname specifiers
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@cindex pathname specifiers
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A pathname specifier (@code{pathname-specifier})
may be a pathname, a string or a symbol.
When no pathname specifier is given for a component,
which is the usual case, the component name itself is used.

If a string is given, which is the usual case,
the string will be interpreted as a Unix-style pathname
where @code{/} characters will be interpreted as directory separators.
Usually, Unix-style relative pathnames are used
(i.e. not starting with @code{/}, as opposed to absolute pathnames);
they are relative to the path of the parent component.
Finally, depending on the @code{component-type},
the pathname may be interpreted as either a file or a directory,
and if it's a file,
a file type may be added corresponding to the @code{component-type},
or else it will be extracted from the string itself (if applicable).

For instance, the @code{component-type} @code{:module}
wants a directory pathname, and so a string @code{"foo/bar"}
will be interpreted as the pathname @file{#p"foo/bar/"}.
On the other hand, the @code{component-type} @code{:file}
wants a file of type @code{lisp}, and so a string @code{"foo/bar"}
will be interpreted as the pathname @file{#p"foo/bar.lisp"},
and a string @code{"foo/bar.quux"}
will be interpreted as the pathname @file{#p"foo/bar.quux.lisp"}.
Finally, the @code{component-type} @code{:static-file}
wants a file without specifying a type, and so a string @code{"foo/bar"}
will be interpreted as the pathname @file{#p"foo/bar"},
and a string @code{"foo/bar.quux"}
will be interpreted as the pathname @file{#p"foo/bar.quux"}.

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ASDF does not interpret the string @code{".."} to designate the parent
directory.  This string will be passed through to the underlying
operating system for interpretation.  We @emph{believe} that this will
work on all platforms where ASDF is deployed, but do not guarantee this
behavior.  A pathname object with a relative directory component of
@code{:up} or @code{:back} is the only guaranteed way to specify a
parent directory.

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If a symbol is given, it will be translated into a string,
and downcased in the process.
The downcasing of symbols is unconventional,
but was selected after some consideration.
Observations suggest that the type of systems we want to support
either have lowercase as customary case (Unix, Mac, windows)
or silently convert lowercase to uppercase (lpns),
so this makes more sense than attempting to use @code{:case :common}
as argument to @code{make-pathname},
which is reported not to work on some implementations.

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Pathname objects may be given to override the path for a component.
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Such objects are typically specified using reader macros such as @code{#p}
or @code{#.(make-pathname ...)}.
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Note however, that @code{#p...} is a shorthand for @code{#.(parse-namestring ...)}
and that the behavior of @code{parse-namestring} is completely non-portable,
unless you are using Common Lisp @code{logical-pathname}s
(@pxref{The defsystem grammar,,Warning about logical pathnames}, below).
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Pathnames made with @code{#.(make-pathname ...)}
can usually be done more easily with the string syntax above.
The only case that you really need a pathname object is to override
the component-type default file type for a given component.
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Therefore, pathname objects should only rarely be used.
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Unhappily, ASDF 1 didn't properly support
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parsing component names as strings specifying paths with directories,
and the cumbersome @code{#.(make-pathname ...)} syntax had to be used.
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Note that when specifying pathname objects, 
ASDF does not do any special interpretation of the pathname
influenced by the component type, unlike the procedure for
pathname-specifying strings.
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On the one hand, you have to be careful to provide a pathname that correctly
fulfills whatever constraints are required from that component type
(e.g. naming a directory or a file with appropriate type);
on the other hand, you can circumvent the file type that would otherwise
be forced upon you if you were specifying a string.
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@subsection Warning about logical pathnames
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@cindex logical pathnames 
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We recommend that you not use logical pathnames
in your asdf system definitions at this point,
but logical pathnames @emph{are} supported.
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To use logical pathnames,
you will have to provide a pathname object as a @code{:pathname} specifier
to components that use it, using such syntax as
@code{#p"LOGICAL-HOST:absolute;path;to;component.lisp"}.

You only have to specify such logical pathname for your system or
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some top-level component.  Sub-components' relative pathnames, specified
using the string syntax
for names, will be properly merged with the pathnames of their parents.
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The specification of a logical pathname host however is @emph{not}
otherwise directly supported in the ASDF syntax
for pathname specifiers as strings.
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The @code{asdf-output-translation} layer will
avoid trying to resolve and translate logical-pathnames.
The advantage of this is that you can define yourself what translations you want to use
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with the logical pathname facility.
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The disadvantage is that if you do not define such translations, any
system that uses logical pathnames will be have differently under
asdf-output-translations than other systems you use.
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If you wish to use logical pathnames you will have to configure the
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translations yourself before they may be used.
ASDF currently provides no specific support
for defining logical pathname translations.
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@subsection Serial dependencies
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@cindex serial dependencies
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If the @code{:serial t} option is specified for a module,
ASDF will add dependencies for each each child component,
on all the children textually preceding it.
This is done as if by @code{:depends-on}.
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@lisp
:serial t
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:components ((:file "a") (:file "b") (:file "c"))
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@end lisp

is equivalent to

@lisp
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:components ((:file "a")
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             (:file "b" :depends-on ("a"))
             (:file "c" :depends-on ("a" "b")))
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@end lisp


@subsection Source location

The @code{:pathname} option is optional in all cases for systems
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defined via @code{defsystem},
and in the usual case the user is recommended not to supply it.
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Instead, ASDF follows a hairy set of rules that are designed so that
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@enumerate
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@item
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@code{find-system}
will load a system from disk
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and have its pathname default to the right place.
@item
This pathname information will not be overwritten with
@code{*default-pathname-defaults*}
(which could be somewhere else altogether)
if the user loads up the @file{.asd} file into his editor
and interactively re-evaluates that form.
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@end enumerate

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If a system is being loaded for the first time,
its top-level pathname will be set to:
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@itemize
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@item
The host/device/directory parts of @code{*load-truename*},
if it is bound.
@item
@code{*default-pathname-defaults*}, otherwise.
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@end itemize

If a system is being redefined, the top-level pathname will be

@itemize
@item
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changed, if explicitly supplied or obtained from @code{*load-truename*}
(so that an updated source location is reflected in the system definition)
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@item
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changed if it had previously been set from @code{*default-pathname-defaults*}
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@item
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left as before, if it had previously been set from @code{*load-truename*}
and @code{*load-truename*} is currently unbound
(so that a developer can evaluate a @code{defsystem} form
from within an editor without clobbering its source location)
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@end itemize

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@node Other code in .asd files,  , The defsystem grammar, Defining systems with defsystem
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@section Other code in .asd files

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Files containing @code{defsystem} forms
are regular Lisp files that are executed by @code{load}.
Consequently, you can put whatever Lisp code you like into these files
(e.g., code that examines the compile-time environment
and adds appropriate features to @code{*features*}).
However, some conventions should be followed,
so that users can control certain details of execution
of the Lisp in @file{.asd} files:
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@itemize
@item
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Any informative output
(other than warnings and errors,
which are the condition system's to dispose of)
should be sent to the standard CL stream @code{*standard-output*},
so that users can easily control the disposition
of output from ASDF operations.
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@end itemize
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@node The object model of ASDF, Controlling where ASDF searches for systems, Defining systems with defsystem, Top
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@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
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@chapter The object model of ASDF

ASDF is designed in an object-oriented way from the ground up.
Both a system's structure and the operations that can be performed on systems
follow a protocol.
ASDF is extensible to new operations and to new component types.
This allows the addition of behaviours:
for example, a new component could be added for Java JAR archives,
and methods specialised on @code{compile-op} added for it
that would accomplish the relevant actions.

This chapter deals with @emph{components}, the building blocks of a system,
and @emph{operations}, the actions that can be performed on a system.
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@menu
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* Operations::
* Components::
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@end menu

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@node  Operations, Components, The object model of ASDF, The object model of ASDF
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@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Operations
@cindex operation

An @dfn{operation} object of the appropriate type is instantiated
whenever the user wants to do something with a system like

@itemize
@item compile all its files
@item load the files into a running lisp environment
@item copy its source files somewhere else
@end itemize

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Operations can be invoked directly, or examined
to see what their effects would be without performing them.
@emph{FIXME: document how!}
There are a bunch of methods specialised on operation and component type
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that actually do the grunt work.

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The operation object contains whatever state is relevant for this purpose
(perhaps a list of visited nodes, for example)
but primarily is a nice thing to specialise operation methods on
and easier than having them all be @code{EQL} methods.
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Operations are invoked on systems via @code{operate}.
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@anchor{operate}
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@deffn {Generic function} @code{operate} @var{operation} @var{system} @&rest @var{initargs}
@deffnx {Generic function} @code{oos} @var{operation} @var{system} @&rest @var{initargs}
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@code{operate} invokes @var{operation} on @var{system}.
@code{oos} is a synonym for @code{operate}.
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@var{operation} is a symbol that is passed, along with the supplied
@var{initargs}, to @code{make-instance} to create the operation object.
@var{system} is a system designator.

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The @var{initargs} are passed to the @code{make-instance} call
when creating the operation object.
Note that dependencies may cause the operation
to invoke other operations on the system or its components:
the new operations will be created
with the same @var{initargs} as the original one.
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@end deffn

@menu
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* Predefined operations of ASDF::
* Creating new operations::
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@end menu

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@node Predefined operations of ASDF, Creating new operations, Operations, Operations
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@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
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@subsection Predefined operations of ASDF
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All the operations described in this section are in the @code{asdf} package.
They are invoked via the @code{operate} generic function.
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@lisp
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(asdf:operate 'asdf:@var{operation-name} :@var{system-name} @{@var{operation-options ...}@})
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@end lisp

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@deffn Operation @code{compile-op} @&key @code{proclamations}
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This operation compiles the specified component.
If proclamations are supplied, they will be proclaimed.
This is a good place to specify optimization settings.
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When creating a new component type,
you should provide methods for @code{compile-op}.
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When @code{compile-op} is invoked,
component dependencies often cause some parts of the system
to be loaded as well as compiled.
Invoking @code{compile-op}
does not necessarily load all the parts of the system, though;
use @code{load-op} to load a system.
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@end deffn

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@deffn Operation @code{load-op} @&key @code{proclamations}
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This operation loads a system.

The default methods for @code{load-op} compile files before loading them.
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For parity, your own methods on new component types should probably do so too.
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@end deffn

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@deffn Operation @code{load-source-op}
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This operation will load the source for the files in a module
even if the source files have been compiled.
Systems sometimes have knotty dependencies
which require that sources are loaded
before they can be compiled.
This is how you do that.
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If you are creating a component type,
you need to implement this operation --- at least, where meaningful.
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@end deffn

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@anchor{test-op}
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@deffn Operation @code{test-op}

This operation will perform some tests on the module.
The default method will do nothing.
The default dependency is to require
@code{load-op} to be performed on the module first.
The default @code{operation-done-p} is that the operation is @emph{never} done
---
we assume that if you invoke the @code{test-op},
you want to test the system, even if you have already done so.

The results of this operation are not defined by ASDF.
It has proven difficult to define how the test operation
should signal its results to the user
in a way that is compatible with all of the various test libraries
and test techniques in use in the community.
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@end deffn

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@c @deffn Operation test-system-version @&key minimum
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@c Asks the system whether it satisfies a version requirement.

@c The default method accepts a string, which is expected to contain of a
@c number of integers separated by #\. characters.  The method is not
@c recursive.  The component satisfies the version dependency if it has
@c the same major number as required and each of its sub-versions is
@c greater than or equal to the sub-version number required.

@c @lisp
@c (defun version-satisfies (x y)
@c   (labels ((bigger (x y)
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@c           (cond ((not y) t)
@c                 ((not x) nil)
@c                 ((> (car x) (car y)) t)
@c                 ((= (car x) (car y))
@c                  (bigger (cdr x) (cdr y))))))
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@c     (and (= (car x) (car y))
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@c       (or (not (cdr y)) (bigger (cdr x) (cdr y))))))
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@c @end lisp

@c If that doesn't work for your system, you can override it.  I hope
@c you have as much fun writing the new method as @verb{|#lisp|} did
@c reimplementing this one.
@c @end deffn

@c @deffn Operation feature-dependent-op

@c An instance of @code{feature-dependent-op} will ignore any components
@c which have a @code{features} attribute, unless the feature combination
@c it designates is satisfied by @code{*features*}.  This operation is
@c not intended to be instantiated directly, but other operations may
@c inherit from it.

@c @end deffn
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@node  Creating new operations,  , Predefined operations of ASDF, Operations
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@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection Creating new operations

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ASDF was designed to be extensible in an object-oriented fashion.
To teach ASDF new tricks, a programmer can implement the behaviour he wants
by creating a subclass of @code{operation}.
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ASDF's pre-defined operations are in no way ``privileged'',
but it is requested that developers never use the @code{asdf} package
for operations they develop themselves.
The rationale for this rule is that we don't want to establish a
``global asdf operation name registry'',
but also want to avoid name clashes.
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An operation must provide methods for the following generic functions
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when invoked with an object of type @code{source-file}:
@emph{FIXME describe this better}
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@itemize

@item @code{output-files}
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The @code{output-files} method determines where the method will put its files.
It returns two values, a list of pathnames, and a boolean.
If the boolean is @code{T} then the pathnames are marked
not be translated by enclosing @code{:around} methods.
If the boolean is @code{NIL} then enclosing @code{:around} methods
may translate these pathnames, e.g. to ensure object files
are somehow stored in some implementation-dependent cache.
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@item @code{perform}
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The @code{perform} method must call @code{output-files}
to find out where to put its files,
because the user is allowed to override.
@item @code{output-files}
for local policy @code{explain}
@item @code{operation-done-p},
if you don't like the default one
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@end itemize

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Operations that print output should send that output to the standard
CL stream @code{*standard-output*}, as the Lisp compiler and loader do.

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@node Components,  , Operations, The object model of ASDF
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@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Components
@cindex component
@cindex system
@cindex system designator
@vindex *system-definition-search-functions*

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A @dfn{component} represents a source file or
(recursively) a collection of components.
A @dfn{system} is (roughly speaking) a top-level component
that can be found via @code{find-system}.
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A @dfn{system designator} is a string or symbol
and behaves just like any other component name
(including with regard to the case conversion rules for component names).
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@defun find-system system-designator &optional (error-p t)

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Given a system designator, @code{find-system} finds and returns a system.
If no system is found, an error of type
@code{missing-component} is thrown,
or @code{nil} is returned if @code{error-p} is false.
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To find and update systems, @code{find-system} funcalls each element
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in the @code{*system-definition-search-functions*} list,
expecting a pathname to be returned.
The resulting pathname is loaded if either of the following conditions is true:
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@itemize
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@item
there is no system of that name in memory
@item
the file's @code{last-modified} time exceeds the @code{last-modified} time
of the system in memory
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@end itemize

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When system definitions are loaded from @file{.asd} files,
a new scratch package is created for them to load into,
so that different systems do not overwrite each others operations.
The user may also wish to (and is recommended to)
include @code{defpackage} and @code{in-package} forms
in his system definition files, however,
so that they can be loaded manually if need be.

The default value of @code{*system-definition-search-functions*}
is a list of two functions.
The first function looks in each of the directories given
by evaluating members of @code{*central-registry*}
for a file whose name is the name of the system and whose type is @file{asd}.
The first such file is returned,
whether or not it turns out to actually define the appropriate system.
The second function does something similar,
for the directories specified in the @code{source-registry}.
Hence, it is strongly advised to define a system
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@var{foo} in the corresponding file @var{foo.asd}.
@end defun


@menu
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* Common attributes of components::
* Pre-defined subclasses of component::
* Creating new component types::
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@end menu

@node  Common attributes of components, Pre-defined subclasses of component, Components, Components
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection Common attributes of components

All components, regardless of type, have the following attributes.
All attributes except @code{name} are optional.

@subsubsection Name

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A component name is a string or a symbol.
If a symbol, its name is taken and lowercased.
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Unless overridden by a @code{:pathname} attribute,
the name will be interpreted as a pathname specifier according
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to a Unix-style syntax.
@xref{The defsystem grammar,,Pathname specifiers}.
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@subsubsection Version identifier

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This optional attribute is used by the @code{test-system-version} operation.
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@xref{Predefined operations of ASDF}.
For the default method of @code{test-system-version},
the version should be a string of integers separated by dots,
for example @samp{1.0.11}.
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