asdf.texinfo 135 KB
Newer Older
1
2
\input texinfo          @c -*- texinfo -*-
@c %**start of header
3
@setfilename asdf.info
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
4
@settitle ASDF Manual
5
6
@c %**end of header

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
@c We use @&key, etc to escape & from TeX in lambda lists --
@c so we need to define them for info as well.
@macro &allow-other-keys
&allow-other-keys
@end macro
@macro &optional
&optional
@end macro
@macro &rest
&rest
@end macro
@macro &key
&key
@end macro
@macro &body
&body
@end macro

25
26
27
@c for install-info
@dircategory Software development
@direntry
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
28
* asdf: (asdf).           Another System Definition Facility (for Common Lisp)
29
30
@end direntry

31
@copying
32
33
This manual describes ASDF, a system definition facility
for Common Lisp programs and libraries.
34

35
36
37
You can find the latest version of this manual at
@url{http://common-lisp.net/project/asdf/asdf.html}.

38
ASDF Copyright @copyright{} 2001-2011 Daniel Barlow and contributors.
39

40
This manual Copyright @copyright{} 2001-2011 Daniel Barlow and contributors.
41

42
This manual revised @copyright{} 2009-2011 Robert P. Goldman and Francois-Rene Rideau.
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
``Software''), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be
included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS'', WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE
LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION
OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

@end copying



@titlepage
68
@title ASDF: Another System Definition Facility
69

70
71
72
73
74
@c The following two commands start the copyright page.
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@insertcopying
@end titlepage
75

76
77
78
79
80
81
82
@c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
@contents

@c -------------------

@ifnottex

83
@node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
84
@top asdf: another system definition facility
85

86
87
88
@insertcopying

@menu
89
90
* Introduction::
* Loading ASDF::
91
92
* Configuring ASDF::
* Using ASDF::
93
94
* Defining systems with defsystem::
* The object model of ASDF::
95
* Controlling where ASDF searches for systems::
96
97
98
99
100
* Controlling where ASDF saves compiled files::
* Error handling::
* Miscellaneous additional functionality::
* Getting the latest version::
* FAQ::
101
* TODO list::
102
103
104
105
* Inspiration::
* Concept Index::
* Function and Class Index::
* Variable Index::
106

107
108
@c @detailmenu
@c  --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
109

110
@c Defining systems with defsystem
111

112
113
114
115
@c * The defsystem form::
@c * A more involved example::
@c * The defsystem grammar::
@c * Other code in .asd files::
116

117
@c The object model of ASDF
118

119
120
@c * Operations::
@c * Components::
121

122
@c Operations
123

124
125
@c * Predefined operations of ASDF::
@c * Creating new operations::
126

127
@c Components
128

129
130
131
@c * Common attributes of components::
@c * Pre-defined subclasses of component::
@c * Creating new component types::
132

133
@c properties
134

135
136
@c * Pre-defined subclasses of component::
@c * Creating new component types::
137

138
@c @end detailmenu
139
140
141
142
143
144
@end menu

@end ifnottex

@c -------------------

145
@node Introduction, Loading ASDF, Top, Top
146
147
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Introduction
Robert P. Goldman's avatar
Robert P. Goldman committed
148
149
150
151
152
153
@cindex ASDF-related features
@vindex *features*
@cindex Testing for ASDF
@cindex ASDF versions
@cindex :asdf
@cindex :asdf2
154

155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
ASDF is Another System Definition Facility:
a tool for specifying how systems of Common Lisp software
are comprised of components (sub-systems and files),
and how to operate on these components in the right order
so that they can be compiled, loaded, tested, etc.

ASDF presents three faces:
one for users of Common Lisp software who want to reuse other people's code,
one for writers of Common Lisp software who want to specify how to build their systems,
one for implementers of Common Lisp extensions who want to extend the build system.
Robert P. Goldman's avatar
Robert P. Goldman committed
165
@xref{Using ASDF,,Loading a system},
166
to learn how to use ASDF to load a system.
Robert P. Goldman's avatar
Robert P. Goldman committed
167
@xref{Defining systems with defsystem},
168
to learn how to define a system of your own.
169
@xref{The object model of ASDF}, for a description of
Robert P. Goldman's avatar
Robert P. Goldman committed
170
the ASDF internals and how to extend ASDF.
171

Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
172
@emph{Nota Bene}:
173
We have released ASDF 2.000 on May 31st 2010.
174
175
176
Subsequent releases of ASDF 2 have since then been included
in all actively maintained CL implementations that bundle ASDF,
and made to work with all actively used CL implementations and a few more.
177
@xref{FAQ,,``What has changed between ASDF 1 and ASDF 2?''}.
178
179
180
181
182
Furthermore, it is possible to upgrade from ASDF 1 to ASDF 2 on the fly.
For this reason, we have stopped supporting ASDF 1;
if you are using ASDF 1 and are experiencing any kind of issues or limitations,
we recommend you upgrade to ASDF 2
--- and we explain how to do it. @xref{Loading ASDF}.
183

184

185
@node Loading ASDF, Configuring ASDF, Introduction, Top
186
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
187
@chapter Loading ASDF
188
@vindex *central-registry*
189
@cindex link farm
190
191
192
193
194
195
@findex load-system
@findex compile-system
@findex test-system
@cindex system directory designator
@findex operate
@findex oos
196

197
@c @menu
198
@c * Installing ASDF::
199
200
201
@c @end menu


202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
@section Loading a pre-installed ASDF

Many Lisp implementations include a copy of ASDF.
You can usually load this copy using Common Lisp's @code{require} function:

@lisp
(require :asdf)
@end lisp

Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
As of the writing of this manual,
the following implementations provide ASDF 2 this way:
abcl allegro ccl clisp cmucl ecl sbcl xcl.
The following implementations don't provide it yet but might in a future release:
lispworks scl.
The following implementations are obsolete and most probably will never bundle it:
cormancl gcl genera mcl.

If the implementation you are using doesn't provide ASDF 2,
see @pxref{Loading ASDF,,Loading an otherwise installed ASDF} below.
If that implementation is still actively maintained,
you may also send a bug report to your Lisp vendor and complain
about their failing to provide ASDF.
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248


@section Checking whether ASDF is loaded

To check whether ASDF is properly loaded in your current Lisp image,
you can run this form:

@lisp
(asdf:asdf-version)
@end lisp

If it returns a string,
that is the version of ASDF that is currently installed.

If it raises an error,
then either ASDF is not loaded, or
you are using an old version of ASDF.

You can check whether an old version is loaded
by checking if the ASDF package is present.
The form below will allow you to programmatically determine
whether a recent version is loaded, an old version is loaded,
or none at all:

@lisp
249
(or #+asdf2 (asdf:asdf-version) #+asdf :old)
250
251
252
253
@end lisp

If it returns a version number, that's the version of ASDF installed.
If it returns the keyword @code{:OLD},
254
then you're using an old version of ASDF (from before 1.635).
255
256
If it returns @code{NIL} then ASDF is not installed.

Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
257
258
259
260
If you are experiencing problems with ASDF,
please try upgrading to the latest released version,
using the method below,
before you contact us and raise an issue.
261
262


263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
@section Upgrading ASDF

If your implementation does provide ASDF 2 or later,
and you want to upgrade to a more recent version,
just install ASDF like any other package
(see @pxref{Loading ASDF,,Loading an otherwise installed ASDF} below),
configure ASDF as usual (see @pxref{Configuring ASDF} below),
and upgrade with:

@lisp
(require :asdf)
(asdf:load-system :asdf)
@end lisp

If on the other hand, your implementation only provides an old ASDF,
you will require a special configuration step and an old-style loading:

@lisp
(require :asdf)
(push #p"@var{/path/to/new/asdf/}" asdf:*central-registry*)
(asdf:oos 'asdf:load-op :asdf)
@end lisp

Don't forget the trailing @code{/} at the end of your pathname.

Also, note that older versions of ASDF won't redirect their output,
or at least won't do it according to your usual ASDF 2 configuration.
You therefore need write access on the directory
where you install the new ASDF,
and make sure you're not using it
for multiple mutually incompatible implementations.
At worst, you may have to have multiple copies of the new ASDF,
e.g. one per implementation installation, to avoid clashes.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
296
297
298
Note that to our knowledge all implementations that provide ASDF
provide ASDF 2 in their latest release, so
you may want to upgrade your implementation rather than go through that hoop.
299

300
301
302
Finally, note that there are some limitations to upgrading ASDF:
@itemize
@item
303
Any ASDF extension becomes invalid, and will need to be reloaded.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
304
This applies to e.g. CFFI-Grovel, or to hacks used by ironclad, etc.
305
306
307
Starting with ASDF 2.014.8, ASDF will actually invalidate
all previously loaded systems when it is loaded on top of
a different ASDF version.
308
@item
309
310
Until all implementations provide ASDF 2.015 or later,
it is safer if you upgrade ASDF and its extensions as a special step
311
312
at the very beginning of whatever script you are running,
before you start using ASDF to load anything else.
313
@item
314
315
Until all implementations provide ASDF 2.015 or later,
it is unsafe to upgrade ASDF as part of loading a system
316
317
318
319
that depends on a more recent version of ASDF,
since the new one might shadow the old one while the old one is running,
and the running old one will be confused
when extensions are loaded into the new one.
320
In the meantime, we recommend that your systems should @emph{not} specify
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
@code{:depends-on (:asdf)}, or @code{:depends-on ((:version :asdf "2.010"))},
but instead that they check that a recent enough ASDF is installed,
with such code as:
@example
(unless (or #+asdf2 (asdf:version-satisfies
                     (asdf:asdf-version) *required-asdf-version*))
  (error "FOO requires ASDF ~A or later." *required-asdf-version*))
@end example
329
330
@end itemize

331

332
333
334
@section Loading an otherwise installed ASDF

If your implementation doesn't include ASDF,
335
336
if for some reason the upgrade somehow fails,
does not or cannot apply to your case,
337
338
339
340
341
342
you will have to install the file @file{asdf.lisp}
somewhere and load it with:

@lisp
(load "/path/to/your/installed/asdf.lisp")
@end lisp
343

344
The single file @file{asdf.lisp} is all you normally need to use ASDF.
345

346
You can extract this file from latest release tarball on the
347
@url{http://common-lisp.net/project/asdf/,ASDF website}.
348
If you are daring and willing to report bugs, you can get
349
the latest and greatest version of ASDF from its git repository.
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
@xref{Getting the latest version}.

For maximum convenience you might want to have ASDF loaded
whenever you start your Lisp implementation,
for example by loading it from the startup script or dumping a custom core
--- check your Lisp implementation's manual for details.

357

358
359
@node Configuring ASDF, Using ASDF, Loading ASDF, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367

@chapter Configuring ASDF

@section Configuring ASDF to find your systems

So it may compile and load your systems, ASDF must be configured to find
the @file{.asd} files that contain system definitions.

368
Since ASDF 2, the preferred way to configure where ASDF finds your systems is
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
369
370
371
the @code{source-registry} facility,
fully described in its own chapter of this manual.
@xref{Controlling where ASDF searches for systems}.
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381

The default location for a user to install Common Lisp software is under
@file{~/.local/share/common-lisp/source/}.
If you install software there, you don't need further configuration.
If you're installing software yourself at a location that isn't standard,
you have to tell ASDF where you installed it. See below.
If you're using some tool to install software,
the authors of that tool should already have configured ASDF.

The simplest way to add a path to your search path,
382
say @file{/home/luser/.asd-link-farm/}
383
384
is to create the directory
@file{~/.config/common-lisp/source-registry.conf.d/}
385
and there create a file with any name of your choice but the type @file{conf},
386
for instance @file{42-asd-link-farm.conf}
387
388
containing the line:

389
@kbd{(:directory "/home/luser/.asd-link-farm/")}
390

391
If you want all the subdirectories under @file{/home/luser/lisp/}
392
393
to be recursively scanned for @file{.asd} files, instead use:

394
@kbd{(:tree "/home/luser/lisp/")}
395
396
397
398

Note that your Operating System distribution or your system administrator
may already have configured system-managed libraries for you.

399
400
401
402
403
The required @file{.conf} extension allows you to have disabled files
or editor backups (ending in @file{~}), and works portably
(for instance, it is a pain to allow both empty and non-empty extension on CLISP).
Excluded are files the name of which start with a @file{.} character.
It is customary to start the filename with two digits
404
405
406
407
408
that specify the order in which the directories will be scanned.

ASDF will automatically read your configuration
the first time you try to find a system.
You can reset the source-registry configuration with:
409

410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
@lisp
(asdf:clear-source-registry)
@end lisp

And you probably should do so before you dump your Lisp image,
if the configuration may change
between the machine where you save it at the time you save it
and the machine you resume it at the time you resume it.


Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
420
@section Configuring ASDF to find your systems -- old style
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490

The old way to configure ASDF to find your systems is by
@code{push}ing directory pathnames onto the variable
@code{asdf:*central-registry*}.

You must configure this variable between the time you load ASDF
and the time you first try to use it.
Loading and configuring ASDF presumably happen
as part of some initialization script that builds or starts
your Common Lisp software system.
(For instance, some SBCL users used to put it in their @file{~/.sbclrc}.)

The @code{asdf:*central-registry*} is empty by default in ASDF 2,
but is still supported for compatibility with ASDF 1.
When used, it takes precedence over the above source-registry@footnote{
It is possible to further customize
the system definition file search.
That's considered advanced use, and covered later:
search forward for
@code{*system-definition-search-functions*}.
@xref{Defining systems with defsystem}.}.

For instance, if you wanted ASDF to find the @file{.asd} file
@file{/home/me/src/foo/foo.asd} your initialization script
could after it loads ASDF with @code{(require :asdf)}
configure it with:

@lisp
(push "/home/me/src/foo/" asdf:*central-registry*)
@end lisp

Note the trailing slash: when searching for a system,
ASDF will evaluate each entry of the central registry
and coerce the result to a pathname@footnote{
ASDF will indeed call @code{EVAL} on each entry.
It will also skip entries that evaluate to @code{NIL}.

Strings and pathname objects are self-evaluating,
in which case the @code{EVAL} step does nothing;
but you may push arbitrary SEXP onto the central registry,
that will be evaluated to compute e.g. things that depend
on the value of shell variables or the identity of the user.

The variable @code{asdf:*central-registry*} is thus a list of
``system directory designators''.
A @dfn{system directory designator} is a form
which will be evaluated whenever a system is to be found,
and must evaluate to a directory to look in.
By ``directory'' here, we mean
``designator for a pathname with a supplied DIRECTORY component''.
}
at which point the presence of the trailing directory name separator
is necessary to tell Lisp that you're discussing a directory
rather than a file.

Typically, however, there are a lot of @file{.asd} files, and
a common idiom was to have to put
a bunch of @emph{symbolic links} to @file{.asd} files
in a common directory
and push @emph{that} directory (the ``link farm'')
to the
@code{asdf:*central-registry*}
instead of pushing each of the many involved directories
to the @code{asdf:*central-registry*}.
ASDF knows how to follow such @emph{symlinks}
to the actual file location when resolving the paths of system components
(on Windows, you can use Windows shortcuts instead of POSIX symlinks).

For example, if @code{#p"/home/me/cl/systems/"} (note the trailing slash)
is a member of @code{*central-registry*}, you could set up the
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
system @var{foo} for loading with asdf with the following
commands at the shell:

@example
$ cd /home/me/cl/systems/
$ ln -s ~/src/foo/foo.asd .
@end example

499
500
501
502
This old style for configuring ASDF is not recommended for new users,
but it is supported for old users, and for users who want to programmatically
control what directories are added to the ASDF search path.

503

504
@section Configuring where ASDF stores object files
505
@findex clear-output-locations
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517

ASDF lets you configure where object files will be stored.
Sensible defaults are provided and
you shouldn't normally have to worry about it.

This allows the same source code repository may be shared
between several versions of several Common Lisp implementations,
between several users using different compilation options
and without write privileges on shared source directories, etc.
This also allows to keep source directories uncluttered
by plenty of object files.

518
Starting with ASDF 2, the @code{asdf-output-translations} facility
519
was added to ASDF itself, that controls where object files will be stored.
520
This facility is fully described in a chapter of this manual,
521
@ref{Controlling where ASDF saves compiled files}.
522
523
524
525
526
527

The simplest way to add a translation to your search path,
say from @file{/foo/bar/baz/quux/}
to @file{/where/i/want/my/fasls/}
is to create the directory
@file{~/.config/common-lisp/asdf-output-translations.conf.d/}
528
and there create a file with any name of your choice and the type @file{conf},
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
for instance @file{42-bazquux.conf}
containing the line:

@kbd{("/foo/bar/baz/quux/" "/where/i/want/my/fasls/")}

To disable output translations for source under a given directory,
say @file{/toto/tata/}
you can create a file @file{40-disable-toto.conf}
with the line:

@kbd{("/toto/tata/")}

To wholly disable output translations for all directories,
you can create a file @file{00-disable.conf}
with the line:

545
@kbd{(t t)}
546
547
548
549
550

Note that your Operating System distribution or your system administrator
may already have configured translations for you.
In absence of any configuration, the default is to redirect everything
under an implementation-dependent subdirectory of @file{~/.cache/common-lisp/}.
551
@xref{Controlling where ASDF searches for systems}, for full details.
552

553
554
555
556
557
The required @file{.conf} extension allows you to have disabled files
or editor backups (ending in @file{~}), and works portably
(for instance, it is a pain to allow both empty and non-empty extension on CLISP).
Excluded are files the name of which start with a @file{.} character.
It is customary to start the filename with two digits
558
559
560
561
562
that specify the order in which the directories will be scanned.

ASDF will automatically read your configuration
the first time you try to find a system.
You can reset the source-registry configuration with:
563
564

@lisp
565
(asdf:clear-output-translations)
566
567
@end lisp

568
569
570
571
572
And you probably should do so before you dump your Lisp image,
if the configuration may change
between the machine where you save it at the time you save it
and the machine you resume it at the time you resume it.

573
Finally note that before ASDF 2,
574
575
576
577
other ASDF add-ons offered the same functionality,
each in subtly different and incompatible ways:
ASDF-Binary-Locations, cl-launch, common-lisp-controller.
ASDF-Binary-Locations is now not needed anymore and should not be used.
578
cl-launch 3.000 and common-lisp-controller 7.2 have been updated
579
to just delegate this functionality to ASDF.
580

581
582
@node Using ASDF, Defining systems with defsystem, Configuring ASDF, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
583

584
585
586
587
588
589
@chapter Using ASDF

@section Loading a system

The system @var{foo} is loaded (and compiled, if necessary)
by evaluating the following Lisp form:
590
591

@example
592
(asdf:load-system :@var{foo})
593
594
@end example

595
596
On some implementations (namely recent versions of
ABCL, Clozure CL, CLISP, CMUCL, ECL, SBCL and SCL),
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
ASDF hooks into the @code{CL:REQUIRE} facility
and you can just use:

@example
(require :@var{foo})
@end example

604
605
In older versions of ASDF, you needed to use
@code{(asdf:oos 'asdf:load-op :@var{foo})}.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
606
607
If your ASDF is too old to provide @code{asdf:load-system} though
we recommend that you upgrade to ASDF 2.
608
@xref{Loading ASDF,,Loading an otherwise installed ASDF}.
609

610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
Note the name of a system is specified as a string or a symbol,
typically a keyword.
If a symbol (including a keyword), its name is taken and lowercased.
The name must be a suitable value for the @code{:name} initarg
to @code{make-pathname} in whatever filesystem the system is to be found.
The lower-casing-symbols behaviour is unconventional,
but was selected after some consideration.
Observations suggest that the type of systems we want to support
either have lowercase as customary case (unix, mac, windows)
or silently convert lowercase to uppercase (lpns),
so this makes more sense than attempting to use @code{:case :common},
which is reported not to work on some implementations

623

624
@section Other Operations
625

626
627
ASDF provides three commands for the most common system operations:
@code{load-system}, @code{compile-system} or @code{test-system}.
628

629
630
631
632
633
634
Because ASDF is an extensible system
for defining @emph{operations} on @emph{components},
it also provides a generic function @code{operate}
(which is usually abbreviated by @code{oos}).
You'll use @code{oos} whenever you want to do something beyond
compiling, loading and testing.
635

636
637
638
639
Output from ASDF and ASDF extensions are supposed to be sent
to the CL stream @code{*standard-output*},
and so rebinding that stream around calls to @code{asdf:operate}
should redirect all output from ASDF operations.
640

641
642
Reminder: before ASDF can operate on a system, however,
it must be able to find and load that system's definition.
643
@xref{Configuring ASDF,,Configuring ASDF to find your systems}.
644
645


646
647
648
649
650
@section Summary

To use ASDF:

@itemize
651
@item
652
653
654
Load ASDF itself into your Lisp image, either through
@code{(require :asdf)} or else through
@code{(load "/path/to/asdf.lisp")}.
655

656
@item
657
658
Make sure ASDF can find system definitions
thanks to proper source-registry configuration.
659

660
@item
661
662
Load a system with @code{(load-system :my-system)}
or use some other operation on some system of your choice.
663
664
665

@end itemize

666
@section Moving on
667

668
669
670
671
672
That's all you need to know to use ASDF to load systems written by others.
The rest of this manual deals with writing system definitions
for Common Lisp software you write yourself,
including how to extend ASDF to define new operation and component types.

673

674
@node Defining systems with defsystem, The object model of ASDF, Using ASDF, Top
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Defining systems with defsystem

This chapter describes how to use asdf to define systems and develop
software.


@menu
683
684
685
686
* The defsystem form::
* A more involved example::
* The defsystem grammar::
* Other code in .asd files::
687
688
689
690
691
692
@end menu

@node  The defsystem form, A more involved example, Defining systems with defsystem, Defining systems with defsystem
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section The defsystem form

693
694
695
696
697
698
Systems can be constructed programmatically
by instantiating components using @code{make-instance}.
Most of the time, however, it is much more practical to use
a static @code{defsystem} form.
This section begins with an example of a system definition,
then gives the full grammar of @code{defsystem}.
699

700
701
Let's look at a simple system.
This is a complete file that would
702
usually be saved as @file{hello-lisp.asd}:
703
704

@lisp
705
(in-package :asdf)
706

707
(defsystem "hello-lisp"
708
  :description "hello-lisp: a sample Lisp system."
709
  :version "0.2.1"
710
711
712
713
714
  :author "Joe User <joe@@example.com>"
  :licence "Public Domain"
  :components ((:file "packages")
               (:file "macros" :depends-on ("packages"))
               (:file "hello" :depends-on ("macros"))))
715
716
717
718
719
@end lisp

Some notes about this example:

@itemize
720
721

@item
722
723
724
725
The file starts with an @code{in-package} form
to use package @code{asdf}.
You could instead start your definition by using
a qualified name @code{asdf:defsystem}.
726

727
@item
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
If in addition to simply using @code{defsystem},
you are going to define functions,
create ASDF extension, globally bind symbols, etc.,
it is recommended that to avoid namespace pollution between systems,
you should create your own package for that purpose,
for instance replacing the above @code{(in-package :asdf)} with:

@lisp
(defpackage :foo-system
  (:use :cl :asdf))

(in-package :foo-system)
@end lisp
741
742

@item
743
744
745
The @code{defsystem} form defines a system named @code{hello-lisp}
that contains three source files:
@file{packages}, @file{macros} and @file{hello}.
746

747
748
749
750
751
752
753
@item
The file @file{macros} depends on @file{packages}
(presumably because the package it's in is defined in @file{packages}),
and the file @file{hello} depends on @file{macros}
(and hence, transitively on @file{packages}).
This means that ASDF will compile and load @file{packages} and @file{macros}
before starting the compilation of file @file{hello}.
754
755

@item
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
The files are located in the same directory
as the file with the system definition.
ASDF resolves symbolic links (or Windows shortcuts)
before loading the system definition file and
stores its location in the resulting system@footnote{
It is possible, though almost never necessary, to override this behaviour.}.
This is a good thing because the user can move the system sources
without having to edit the system definition.
764

765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
@c FIXME: Should have cross-reference to "Version specifiers" in the
@c defsystem grammar, but the cross-referencing is so broken by
@c insufficient node breakdown that I have not put one in.
@item
Make sure you know how the @code{:version} numbers will be parsed!  They
are parsed as period-separated lists of integers.  I.e., in the example,
@code{0.2.1} is to be interpreted, roughly speaking, as @code{(0 2 1)}.
In particular, version @code{0.2.1} is interpreted the same as
@code{0.0002.1} and is strictly version-less-than version @code{0.20.1},
even though the two are the same when interpreted as decimal fractions.
@cindex version specifiers
@cindex :version

778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
@end itemize

@node  A more involved example, The defsystem grammar, The defsystem form, Defining systems with defsystem
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section A more involved example

Let's illustrate some more involved uses of @code{defsystem} via a
slightly convoluted example:

@lisp
(defsystem "foo"
789
  :version "1.0.0"
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
  :components ((:module "mod"
                            :components ((:file "bar")
                                                  (:file"baz")
                                                  (:file "quux"))
                            :perform (compile-op :after (op c)
                                                  (do-something c))
                            :explain (compile-op :after (op c)
                                            (explain-something c)))
                         (:file "blah")))
799
800
@end lisp

801
802
803
804
805
806
807
The @code{:module} component named @code{"mod"} is a collection of three files,
which will be located in a subdirectory of the main code directory named
@file{mod} (this location can be overridden; see the discussion of the
@code{:pathname} option in @ref{The defsystem grammar}).

The method-form tokens provide a shorthand for defining methods on
particular components.  This part
808
809

@lisp
810
811
812
813
                :perform (compile-op :after (op c)
                          (do-something c))
                :explain (compile-op :after (op c)
                          (explain-something c))
814
815
816
817
818
819
@end lisp

has the effect of

@lisp
(defmethod perform :after ((op compile-op) (c (eql ...)))
820
           (do-something c))
821
(defmethod explain :after ((op compile-op) (c (eql ...)))
822
           (explain-something c))
823
824
@end lisp

825
where @code{...} is the component in question.
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
826
In this case @code{...} would expand to something like
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843

@lisp
(find-component (find-system "foo") "mod")
@end lisp

For more details on the syntax of such forms, see @ref{The defsystem
grammar}.
For more details on what these methods do, @pxref{Operations} in
@ref{The object model of ASDF}.

@c The following plunge into the weeds is not appropriate in this
@c location. [2010/10/03:rpg]
@c note that although this also supports @code{:before} methods,
@c they may not do what you want them to ---
@c a @code{:before} method on perform @code{((op compile-op) (c (eql ...)))}
@c will run after all the dependencies and sub-components have been processed,
@c but before the component in question has been compiled.
844

845
@node  The defsystem grammar, Other code in .asd files, A more involved example, Defining systems with defsystem
846
847
848
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section The defsystem grammar

849
850
851
@c FIXME: @var typesetting not consistently used here.  We should either expand
@c its use to everywhere, or we should kill it everywhere.

852

853
@example
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
system-definition := ( defsystem system-designator @var{system-option}* )

system-option := :defsystem-depends-on system-list
                 | module-option
                 | option

module-option := :components component-list
                 | :serial [ t | nil ]
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
862
                 | :if-component-dep-fails component-dep-fail-option
863

Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
864
option :=
865
        | :pathname pathname-specifier
866
        | :default-component-class class-name
867
        | :perform method-form
868
        | :explain method-form
869
        | :output-files method-form
870
        | :operation-done-p method-form
871
872
        | :depends-on ( @var{dependency-def}* )
        | :in-order-to ( @var{dependency}+ )
873

874

875
876
system-list := ( @var{simple-component-name}* )

877
component-list := ( @var{component-def}* )
878

879
component-def  := ( component-type simple-component-name @var{option}* )
880

881
component-type := :system | :module | :file | :static-file | other-component-type
882

883
other-component-type := symbol-by-name (@pxref{The defsystem grammar,,Component types})
884

Gary King's avatar
Gary King committed
885
886
887
888
dependency-def := simple-component-name
               | ( :feature name )
               | ( :version simple-component-name version-specifier)

889
890
dependency := (dependent-op @var{requirement}+)
requirement := (required-op @var{required-component}+)
891
892
893
             | (feature feature-name)
dependent-op := operation-name
required-op := operation-name | feature
Gary King's avatar
Gary King committed
894
895
896

simple-component-name := string
                      |  symbol
897

898
899
pathname-specifier := pathname | string | symbol

900
method-form := (operation-name qual lambda-list @&rest body)
901
qual := method qualifier
902
903

component-dep-fail-option := :fail | :try-next | :ignore
904
@end example
905

906

907
908
@subsection Component names

909
910
Component names (@code{simple-component-name})
may be either strings or symbols.
911

912
@subsection Component types
913
914
915
916
917
918
919

Component type names, even if expressed as keywords, will be looked up
by name in the current package and in the asdf package, if not found in
the current package.  So a component type @code{my-component-type}, in
the current package @code{my-system-asd} can be specified as
@code{:my-component-type}, or @code{my-component-type}.

920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
@subsection Defsystem depends on

The @code{:defsystem-depends-on} option to @code{defsystem} allows the
programmer to specify another ASDF-defined system or set of systems that
must be loaded @emph{before} the system definition is processed.
Typically this is used to load an ASDF extension that is used in the
system definition.

928
@subsection Pathname specifiers
929
@cindex pathname specifiers
930

931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
A pathname specifier (@code{pathname-specifier})
may be a pathname, a string or a symbol.
When no pathname specifier is given for a component,
which is the usual case, the component name itself is used.

If a string is given, which is the usual case,
the string will be interpreted as a Unix-style pathname
where @code{/} characters will be interpreted as directory separators.
Usually, Unix-style relative pathnames are used
(i.e. not starting with @code{/}, as opposed to absolute pathnames);
they are relative to the path of the parent component.
Finally, depending on the @code{component-type},
the pathname may be interpreted as either a file or a directory,
and if it's a file,
a file type may be added corresponding to the @code{component-type},
or else it will be extracted from the string itself (if applicable).

For instance, the @code{component-type} @code{:module}
wants a directory pathname, and so a string @code{"foo/bar"}
will be interpreted as the pathname @file{#p"foo/bar/"}.
On the other hand, the @code{component-type} @code{:file}
wants a file of type @code{lisp}, and so a string @code{"foo/bar"}
will be interpreted as the pathname @file{#p"foo/bar.lisp"},
and a string @code{"foo/bar.quux"}
will be interpreted as the pathname @file{#p"foo/bar.quux.lisp"}.
Finally, the @code{component-type} @code{:static-file}
wants a file without specifying a type, and so a string @code{"foo/bar"}
will be interpreted as the pathname @file{#p"foo/bar"},
and a string @code{"foo/bar.quux"}
will be interpreted as the pathname @file{#p"foo/bar.quux"}.

962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
ASDF does not interpret the string @code{".."} to designate the parent
directory.  This string will be passed through to the underlying
operating system for interpretation.  We @emph{believe} that this will
work on all platforms where ASDF is deployed, but do not guarantee this
behavior.  A pathname object with a relative directory component of
@code{:up} or @code{:back} is the only guaranteed way to specify a
parent directory.

970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
If a symbol is given, it will be translated into a string,
and downcased in the process.
The downcasing of symbols is unconventional,
but was selected after some consideration.
Observations suggest that the type of systems we want to support
either have lowercase as customary case (Unix, Mac, windows)
or silently convert lowercase to uppercase (lpns),
so this makes more sense than attempting to use @code{:case :common}
as argument to @code{make-pathname},
which is reported not to work on some implementations.

981
Pathname objects may be given to override the path for a component.
982
983
Such objects are typically specified using reader macros such as @code{#p}
or @code{#.(make-pathname ...)}.
984
985
986
987
Note however, that @code{#p...} is a shorthand for @code{#.(parse-namestring ...)}
and that the behavior of @code{parse-namestring} is completely non-portable,
unless you are using Common Lisp @code{logical-pathname}s
(@pxref{The defsystem grammar,,Warning about logical pathnames}, below).
988
989
990
991
Pathnames made with @code{#.(make-pathname ...)}
can usually be done more easily with the string syntax above.
The only case that you really need a pathname object is to override
the component-type default file type for a given component.
992
Therefore, pathname objects should only rarely be used.
993
Unhappily, ASDF 1 didn't properly support
994
995
parsing component names as strings specifying paths with directories,
and the cumbersome @code{#.(make-pathname ...)} syntax had to be used.
996

Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
997
Note that when specifying pathname objects,
998
999
1000
ASDF does not do any special interpretation of the pathname
influenced by the component type, unlike the procedure for
pathname-specifying strings.
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
On the one hand, you have to be careful to provide a pathname that correctly
fulfills whatever constraints are required from that component type
(e.g. naming a directory or a file with appropriate type);
on the other hand, you can circumvent the file type that would otherwise
be forced upon you if you were specifying a string.
1006

1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
@subsection Version specifiers
@cindex version specifiers
@cindex :version

Version specifiers are parsed as period-separated lists of integers.  I.e., in the example,
@code{0.2.1} is to be interpreted, roughly speaking, as @code{(0 2 1)}.
In particular, version @code{0.2.1} is interpreted the same as
@code{0.0002.1} and is strictly version-less-than version @code{0.20.1},
even though the two are the same when interpreted as decimal fractions.

System definers are encouraged to use version identifiers of the form
@var{x}.@var{y}.@var{z} for major version, minor version (compatible
API) and patch level.

@xref{Common attributes of components}.

1023

1024
@subsection ASDF and logical pathnames: instructions and some cautions
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
1025
@cindex logical pathnames
1026

1027
1028
1029
We recommend that you not use logical pathnames
in your asdf system definitions at this point,
but logical pathnames @emph{are} supported.
1030

1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
To use logical pathnames,
you will have to provide a pathname object as a @code{:pathname} specifier
to components that use it, using such syntax as
@code{#p"LOGICAL-HOST:absolute;path;to;component.lisp"}.

You only have to specify such logical pathname for your system or
1037
1038
1039
some top-level component.  Sub-components' relative pathnames, specified
using the string syntax
for names, will be properly merged with the pathnames of their parents.
1040
1041
1042
The specification of a logical pathname host however is @emph{not}
otherwise directly supported in the ASDF syntax
for pathname specifiers as strings.
1043

1044
1045
1046
The @code{asdf-output-translation} layer will
avoid trying to resolve and translate logical-pathnames.
The advantage of this is that you can define yourself what translations you want to use
1047
with the logical pathname facility.
1048
The disadvantage is that if you do not define such translations, any
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
1049
system that uses logical pathnames will behave differently under
1050
asdf-output-translations than other systems you use.
1051

1052
If you wish to use logical pathnames you will have to configure the
1053
1054
1055
translations yourself before they may be used.
ASDF currently provides no specific support
for defining logical pathname translations.
1056
1057


1058
@subsection Serial dependencies
1059
@cindex serial dependencies
1060

1061
If the @code{:serial t} option is specified for a module,
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
1062
ASDF will add dependencies for each child component,
1063
1064
on all the children textually preceding it.
This is done as if by @code{:depends-on}.
1065
1066
1067

@lisp
:serial t
1068
:components ((:file "a") (:file "b") (:file "c"))
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
@end lisp

is equivalent to

@lisp
1074
:components ((:file "a")
1075
1076
             (:file "b" :depends-on ("a"))
             (:file "c" :depends-on ("a" "b")))
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
@end lisp


@subsection Source location

The @code{:pathname} option is optional in all cases for systems
1083
1084
defined via @code{defsystem},
and in the usual case the user is recommended not to supply it.
1085

1086
Instead, ASDF follows a hairy set of rules that are designed so that
1087
@enumerate
1088
@item
Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
1.647:    
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
1089
1090
@code{find-system}
will load a system from disk
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
and have its pathname default to the right place.
@item
This pathname information will not be overwritten with
@code{*default-pathname-defaults*}
(which could be somewhere else altogether)
if the user loads up the @file{.asd} file into his editor
and interactively re-evaluates that form.
1098
1099
@end enumerate

1100
1101
If a system is being loaded for the first time,
its top-level pathname will be set to:
1102
1103

@itemize
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
@item
The host/device/directory parts of @code{*load-truename*},
if it is bound.
@item
@code{*default-pathname-defaults*}, otherwise.
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
@end itemize

If a system is being redefined, the top-level pathname will be

@itemize
@item
1115
1116
changed, if explicitly supplied or obtained from @code{*load-truename*}
(so that an updated source location is reflected in the system definition)
1117
@item
1118
changed if it had previously been set from @code{*default-pathname-defaults*}
1119
@item
1120
1121
1122
1123
left as before, if it had previously been set from @code{*load-truename*}
and @code{*load-truename*} is currently unbound
(so that a developer can evaluate a @code{defsystem} form
from within an editor without clobbering its source location)
1124
1125
@end itemize

1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
@subsection if-component-dep-fails option

This option is only appropriate for module components (including
systems), not individual source files.

For more information about this option, @pxref{Pre-defined subclasses of component}.

1133
@node Other code in .asd files,  , The defsystem grammar, Defining systems with defsystem
1134
1135
@section Other code in .asd files

1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
Files containing @code{defsystem} forms
are regular Lisp files that are executed by @code{load}.
Consequently, you can put whatever Lisp code you like into these files
(e.g., code that examines the compile-time environment
and adds appropriate features to @code{*features*}).
However, some conventions should be followed,
so that users can control certain details of execution
of the Lisp in @file{.asd} files:
1144
1145
1146

@itemize
@item
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
Any informative output
(other than warnings and errors,
which are the condition system's to dispose of)
should be sent to the standard CL stream @code{*standard-output*},
so that users can easily control the disposition
of output from ASDF operations.
1153
@end itemize
1154
1155


1156
@node The object model of ASDF, Controlling where ASDF searches for systems, Defining systems with defsystem, Top
1157
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
@chapter The object model of ASDF

ASDF is designed in an object-oriented way from the ground up.
Both a system's structure and the operations that can be performed on systems
follow a protocol.
ASDF is extensible to new operations and to new component types.
This allows the addition of behaviours:
for example, a new component could be added for Java JAR archives,
and methods specialised on @code{compile-op} added for it
that would accomplish the relevant actions.

This chapter deals with @emph{components}, the building blocks of a system,
and @emph{operations}, the actions that can be performed on a system.
1171
1172
1173
1174



@menu
1175
1176
* Operations::
* Components::
1177
1178
@end menu

1179
@node  Operations, Components, The object model of ASDF, The object model of ASDF
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Operations
@cindex operation

An @dfn{operation} object of the appropriate type is instantiated
whenever the user wants to do something with a system like

@itemize
@item compile all its files
@item load the files into a running lisp environment
@item copy its source files somewhere else
@end itemize

1193
1194
1195
1196
Operations can be invoked directly, or examined
to see what their effects would be without performing them.
@emph{FIXME: document how!}
There are a bunch of methods specialised on operation and component type
1197
1198
that actually do the grunt work.

1199
1200
1201
1202
The operation object contains whatever state is relevant for this purpose
(perhaps a list of visited nodes, for example)
but primarily is a nice thing to specialise operation methods on
and easier than having them all be @code{EQL} methods.
1203
1204

Operations are invoked on systems via @code{operate}.
1205
@anchor{operate}
1206
1207
@deffn {Generic function} @code{operate} @var{operation} @var{system} @&rest @var{initargs}
@deffnx {Generic function} @code{oos} @var{operation} @var{system} @&rest @var{initargs}
1208
1209
@code{operate} invokes @var{operation} on @var{system}.
@code{oos} is a synonym for @code{operate}.
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214

@var{operation} is a symbol that is passed, along with the supplied
@var{initargs}, to @code{make-instance} to create the operation object.
@var{system} is a system designator.

1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
The @var{initargs} are passed to the @code{make-instance} call
when creating the operation object.
Note that dependencies may cause the operation
to invoke other operations on the system or its components:
the new operations will be created
with the same @var{initargs} as the original one.
1221
1222
1223
1224

@end deffn

@menu
1225
1226
* Predefined operations of ASDF::
* Creating new operations::
1227
1228
@end menu

1229
@node Predefined operations of ASDF, Creating new operations, Operations, Operations
1230
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
1231
@subsection Predefined operations of ASDF
1232

1233
1234
All the operations described in this section are in the @code{asdf} package.
They are invoked via the @code{operate} generic function.
1235
1236

@lisp
1237
(asdf:operate 'asdf:@var{operation-name} :@var{system-name} @{@var{operation-options ...}@})
1238
1239
@end lisp

1240
@deffn Operation @code{compile-op} @&key @code{proclamations}
1241

1242
1243
1244
This operation compiles the specified component.
If proclamations are supplied, they will be proclaimed.
This is a good place to specify optimization settings.
1245

1246
1247
When creating a new component type,
you should provide methods for @code{compile-op}.
1248

1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
When @code{compile-op} is invoked,
component dependencies often cause some parts of the system
to be loaded as well as compiled.
Invoking @code{compile-op}
does not necessarily load all the parts of the system, though;
use @code{load-op} to load a system.
1255
1256
@end deffn

1257
@deffn Operation @code{load-op} @&key @code{proclamations}
1258
1259
1260
1261

This operation loads a system.

The default methods for @code{load-op} compile files before loading them.
1262
For parity, your own methods on new component types should probably do so too.
1263
1264
@end deffn

1265
@deffn Operation @code{load-source-op}
1266

1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
This operation will load the source for the files in a module
even if the source files have been compiled.
Systems sometimes have knotty dependencies
which require that sources are loaded
before they can be compiled.
This is how you do that.
1273

1274
1275
If you are creating a component type,
you need to implement this operation --- at least, where meaningful.
1276
1277
@end deffn

1278
@anchor{test-op}
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
@deffn Operation @code{test-op}

This operation will perform some tests on the module.
The default method will do nothing.
The default dependency is to require
@code{load-op} to be performed on the module first.
The default @code{operation-done-p} is that the operation is @emph{never} done
---
we assume that if you invoke the @code{test-op},
you want to test the system, even if you have already done so.

The results of this operation are not defined by ASDF.
It has proven difficult to define how the test operation
should signal its results to the user
in a way that is compatible with all of the various test libraries
and test techniques in use in the community.
Robert P. Goldman's avatar
Robert P. Goldman committed
1295
1296
@end deffn

Francois-Rene Rideau's avatar
Francois-Rene Rideau committed
1297
@c @deffn Operation test-system-version @&key minimum
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309

@c Asks the system whether it satisfies a version requirement.

@c The default method accepts a string, which is expected to contain of a
@c number of integers separated by #\. characters.  The method is not
@c recursive.  The component satisfies the version dependency if it has
@c the same major number as required and each of its sub-versions is
@c greater than or equal to the sub-version number required.

@c @lisp
@c (defun version-satisfies (x y)
@c   (labels ((bigger (x y)
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
@c           (cond ((not y) t)
@c                 ((not x) nil)
@c                 ((> (car x) (car y)) t)
@c                 ((= (car x) (car y))
@c                  (bigger (cdr x) (cdr y))))))