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    <title>ASDF - Another System Definition Facility</title>
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    <meta name="author" content="the ASDF group"/>
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    <div class="header">
      <span class="logo">
        <a href="http://common-lisp.net/project/asdf/" title="ASDF Homepage">
          <img src="lisp-logo120x80.png" title="ASDF homepage" width="100" alt="Lisp Lizzard" />
        </a>
      </span>
      <h2>ASDF</h2><h4>Another System Definition Facility</h4>
    </div>
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    <div class="system-links">
      <ul>
        <li><a href="#what_it_is">What it is</a></li>
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        <li><a href="#what_it_is_not">What it is not</a></li>
        <li><a href="#implementations">Supported Implementations</a></li>
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        <li><a href="#examples">Examples</a></li>
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        <li><a href="#documentation">Documentation</a></li>
        <li><a href="#downloads">Getting it</a></li>
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        <li><a href="#extensions">Extensions</a></li>
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        <li><a href="#bugs">Reporting Bugs</a></li>
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        <li><a href="#mailing-lists">Mailing Lists</a></li>
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        <li><a href="http://common-lisp.net/gitweb?p=projects/asdf/asdf.git;a=log"
               >Changelog</a></li>
      </ul>
    </div>
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    <div class="contents">
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        <a id="ASDF 3"></a>
        <h3>ASDF 3</h3>
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        <p>ASDF 3, pre-released as 2.28 on February 1st 2013, and
          released as 3.0.0 on May 15th 2013,
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          is the current successor to Daniel Barlow's ASDF.
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          It was rewritten for improved portability, robustness, usability,
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          extensibility, configurability, internal consistency,
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          and the ability to create standalone executables.
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        </p>
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        <a id="what_it_is"></a>
        <h3>What it is</h3>
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        <p>ASDF 3 contains two parts: <tt>asdf/defsystem</tt> and <tt>asdf/driver</tt>.
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        </p>
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        <p><tt>asdf/defsystem</tt>,
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          is a tool to describe how Lisp source code is organized in systems,
          and how to build a system in term of actions that depend on previous actions.
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        </p>
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        <p>It is roughly what Common Lisp hackers use to build software
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          where C hackers might use GNU <tt>Make</tt>.
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        </p>
        <p>ASDF stands for <em>A</em>nother <em>S</em>ystem <em>D</em>efinition <em>F</em>acility,
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          in the continuity of the Lisp <tt>DEFSYSTEM</tt> of yore.
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        </p>
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        <p><tt>asdf/driver</tt>,
          also known as <tt>uiop</tt>,
          the Utilities for Implementation- and OS- Portability,
          is a Common Lisp portability library and runtime support system
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          that helps you write Common Lisp software in a portable way.
        </p>
        <p>In addition to many general-purpose Lisp utilities,
          it notably provides portable abstractions to
          gloss over implementation quirks, support hot-upgrade of code,
          manipulate pathnames, create programs, use command-line arguments,
          access the environment, use the filesystem,
          call other programs and parse their output,
          compile Lisp code, muffle conditions, or configure Lisp software.
        </p>
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        <a id="what_it_is_not"></a>
        <h3>What it is not</h3>
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        <p>ASDF will <em>not</em> download missing software components for you.
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          For that, you want <a href="http://quicklisp.org/"><tt>Quicklisp</tt></a>,
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          that builds upon ASDF, and is great for pulling and installing
          tarballs of packages you may depend upon;
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          we also recommend <a href="http://common-lisp.net/project/clbuild/"><tt>clbuild</tt></a>,
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          that now builds upon Quicklisp, as a great tool for pulling from version control
          packages you need to modify or want to contribute to.
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          We recommend you should <em>not</em> use <tt>asdf-install</tt> anymore,
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          as it is an older similar piece of software that is both unmaintained and obsolete.
        </p><p>
          If you're unsatisfied with ASDF, other actively maintained build systems for Common-Lisp
          that may or may not satisfy you include:
          Fran&ccedil;ois-Ren&eacute; Rideau's
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          <a href="http://common-lisp.net/project/xcvb/"><tt>XCVB</tt></a>
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          (trying to build object and image files deterministically and in parallel),
          or its polar opposite,
          Drew McDermott's
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          <a href="http://cs-www.cs.yale.edu/homes/dvm/"><tt>YTools</tt></a>
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          (trying to maintain coherence of the current Lisp image at a fine grain),
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          the newcomer
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          <a href="http://lisp.ystok.ru/asdlite/"><tt>ASDlite</tt></a>
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          (a somewhat improved incompatible variant of ASDF 1, less featureful than ASDF 3),
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          or Alastair Bridgewater's interesting <tt>quick-build</tt> (unreleased, similar to <tt>faslpath</tt> below).
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          Older systems that are not maintained anymore include
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          Mark Kantrowitz's <a href="http://www.cliki.net/mk-defsystem"><tt>mk-defsystem</tt></a>
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          (free software successor of the old proprietary DEFSYSTEM's and predecessor of ASDF, obsolete),
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          Sean Ross's <a href="http://sean-ross.blogspot.com/search/label/mudballs"><tt>mudballs</tt></a>
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          (an attempt at making things cleaner than in ASDF, aborted),
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          Peter Etter's <a href="http://www.cliki.net/faslpath"><tt>faslpath</tt></a>
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          (a much simpler system establishing a mapping between packages and files)
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          Alexander Kahl's <a href="http://www.cliki.net/evol"><tt>evol</tt></a>
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          (a reimplementation of the GNU autotools stack in Lisp, abandoned),
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          and probably more.
          However, none of these systems seems to ever have had the traction of ASDF.
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        </p>
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        <a id="implementations"></a>
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        <h3>Supported Implementations</h3>
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        <p>ASDF 3 now supports all CL implementations
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          that seem to have any current user base, and then some.
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        </p><p>
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          Most implementations provide ASDF as a module,
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          and you can simply <tt>(require "asdf")</tt>.
          (All of them but CLISP also accept
          <tt>:asdf</tt>, <tt>"ASDF"</tt> or <tt>'asdf</tt> as an argument.)
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          All of these implementations provide at least ASDF 2,
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          and a few of them aready provide ASDF 3
          (<tt>abcl</tt>, <tt>allegro</tt>, <tt>ccl</tt>, <tt>cmucl</tt>, <tt>ecl</tt>).
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          Hopefully soon all will follow suit;
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          but in the meantime, you can download ASDF 3,
          and use <tt>(asdf:load-system :asdf)</tt>
          from a properly configured ASDF 2 to upgrade to the latest,
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          which you should do before you use ASDF for anything else.
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        </p><p>
          A few implementations don't provide ASDF yet,
          but have announced they will in their next release.
          As for remaining implementations,
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          they are obsolete and/or mostly unmaintained;
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          still ASDF 3 supports them if you load it manually,
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          though there might never be a next release
          to provide it through <tt>require</tt>.
        </p>
        <table>
          <tr><th></th>
            <th align="left">Provide "asdf"</th>
            <th align="left">Will provide it</th>
            <th align="left">Obsolete</th></tr>
          <tr><th align="left">Free</th>
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            <td align="left"><tt>abcl ccl clisp cmucl ecl mkcl sbcl xcl</tt></td>
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            <td> </td>
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            <td align="left"><tt>gcl mcl</tt></td></tr>
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          <tr><th align="left">Proprietary</th>
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            <td align="left"><tt>allegro lispworks</tt></td>
            <td align="left"><tt>scl</tt></td>
            <td align="left"><tt>cormanlisp genera</tt></td></tr>
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        </table>
        <!-- Note to self:
             The maintainers of the following implementations follow asdf-announce:
             allegro	Gary King <gwking@franz.com>
             clisp	(sds)
             ecl	(juanjo)

             The maintainers of the following implementations require direct notification:
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             abcl ccl cmucl gcl lispworks sbcl mkcl scl xcl
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Armed Bear <armedbear-devel@common-lisp.net>,
openmcl-devel@clozure.com,
cmucl-imp@cons.org,
gcl-devel@gnu.org,
lisp-support@lispworks.com,
SBCL Devel-list <sbcl-devel@lists.sourceforge.net>,
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Jean-Claude Beaudoin <jean.claude.beaudoin@gmail.com>,
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Douglas Crosher <dtc3@scieneer.com>,
Peter Graves <gnooth@gmail.com>
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        -->
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        <p>
          If there is an old or new implementation that we are missing,
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          it shouldn't be hard to adapt ASDF to support it.
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          Ask us!
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        </p>
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        <a id="examples"></a>
        <h3>Examples</h3>
        <p>Download any of the many packages available through
          <a href="http://quicklisp.org/">Quicklisp</a>
          to see as many examples.</p>

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        <a id="documentation"></a>
        <h3>Documentation</h3>
        <p>You can read our manual:</p>
        <ul>
          <li><a href="asdf.html">as one HTML file</a></li>
          <li><a href="asdf/">split into one HTML file per section</a></li>
          <li><a href="asdf.pdf">as a PDF document</a></li>
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          <li><a href="http://common-lisp.net/gitweb?p=projects/asdf/asdf.git;a=blob;f=doc/asdf.texinfo">as texinfo source</a></li>
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        </ul>
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        <p>Regarding the internal design of ASDF in general,
          and the work we did on ASDF 2,
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          see the last draft version of our paper for
          <a href="http://www.international-lisp-conference.org/2010/index">ILC 2010</a>,
          <cite><a href="ilc2010draft.pdf"
                   >Evolving ASDF: More Cooperation, Less Coordination</a></cite></p>
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        <p>Finally, while the manual covers all the basics,
          some advanced or new features remain underdocumented.
          Please contact our mailing-list (see below)
          for any issue that isn't well-documented enough.
        </p>
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        <p>Until we write more documentation on the further innovations of ASDF 3,
          the documentation strings, the source code, the changelog and the git log
          are unfortunately your best chances for discovering the available functionality.
        </p>
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        <a id="downloads"></a>
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        <h3>Getting it</h3>
        <p>Though they may lag behind the version here, ASDF comes bundled with most Lisps.
          To get the greatest and latest, you can:
        </p>
        <ul>
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          <li>download just the latest <em>release</em> source for
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            <!--<a href="http://common-lisp.net/gitweb?p=projects/asdf/asdf.git;a=blob_plain;tag=RELEASE;f=asdf.lisp">asdf.lisp</a>,-->
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            <a href="http://common-lisp.net/project/asdf/asdf.lisp">asdf.lisp</a>;
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          </li>
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          <li>download the latest <em>release</em>
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            <!--<a href="http://common-lisp.net/gitweb?p=projects/asdf/asdf.git;tag=RELEASE;a=snapshot;sf=tgz">tarball</a>,-->
            <a href="http://common-lisp.net/project/asdf/asdf.tar.gz">tarball</a>
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            to get all bells and whistles;
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          </li>
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          <li>pull the latest <em>development</em> tree from our git repository
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            <pre>git clone git://common-lisp.net/projects/asdf/asdf.git</pre>
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            (note that our "master" branch is for current development;
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            get our "release" branch for the latest stable release.
            Run <tt>make</tt> to create <tt>build/asdf.lisp</tt>);
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          </li>
          <li>browse the latest <em>development</em> tree from our git repository:
            <a href="http://common-lisp.net/gitweb?p=projects/asdf/asdf.git">gitweb</a>
          </li>
          <li>download the tarball of a past release:
            <a href="http://common-lisp.net/project/asdf/archives/">archives</a>
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        </li></ul>

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        <a id="extensions"></a>
        <h3>Extensions</h3>
        <p>Known extensions to ASDF include:</p>
	<ul>
	  <li><a href="http://common-lisp.net/gitweb?p=projects/asdf/asdf-contrib.git"
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		 ><tt>asdf-contrib</tt></a>,
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	    a collection of most of the below.</li>
	  <li><a href="http://common-lisp.net/gitweb?p=projects/asdf/asdf-encodings.git"
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		 ><tt>asdf-encodings</tt></a>,
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	    to compile Lisp source files with character encodings other than UTF-8.</li>
	  <li><a href="http://common-lisp.net/gitweb?p=projects/asdf/asdf-finalizers.git"
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		 ><tt>asdf-finalizers</tt></a>,
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	    to allow macros to include code to be evaluated
	    at the end of a file being compiled.</li>
	  <li><a href="http://common-lisp.net/gitweb?p=projects/xcvb/asdf-dependency-grovel.git"
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		 ><tt>asdf-dependency-grovel</tt></a>,
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	    to compute the actual dependencies in a big ASDF system.</li>
	  <li><a href="http://common-lisp.net/project/qitab/"
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		 ><tt>poiu</tt></a>,
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	    to compile a system in parallel.</li>
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	  <li><a href="http://common-lisp.net/project/asdf-system-connections/"
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		 ><tt>asdf-system-connections</tt></a>,
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	    lets you specify systems that are automatically loaded when
            two other systems are loaded, to connect them.</li>
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	  <li><a href="http://www.lrde.epita.fr/~didier/software/lisp/misc.php#asdf-flv"
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		 ><tt>asdf-flv</tt></a>,
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	    to bind file-local variables around the compilation of some files.</li>
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        </ul>
        <p>Former extensions, now superseded, include:</p>
        <ul>
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	  <li><tt>asdf-binary-locations</tt> allowed one to redirect where ASDF creates its output files,
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            so they don't clash between implementations and don't pollute source directories.
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            It is superseded by <tt>asdf/defsystem</tt> builtin <tt>asdf-output-translations</tt> mechanism;
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            a limited compatibility mode is available to easily convert
            your former ABL configuration into an AOT configuration.
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            <tt>common-lisp-controller</tt> and <tt>cl-launch</tt> used to provide similar mechanisms,
            and have also been superseded by <tt>asdf-output-translations</tt>.
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          </li>
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	  <li><tt>asdf-bundle</tt>, n&eacute;e <tt>asdf-ecl</tt>,
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            allowed you to create a single-file bundle out of a system,
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            for easier delivery.
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            It is now a builtin part of <tt>asdf/defsystem</tt>,
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            and allows to deliver a single FASL for a system,
            or (on supported implementations), a standalone executable program.
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          </li>
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	  <li><tt>asdf-utils</tt> was a collection of utilities that originated with ASDF.
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            It is now superseded by <tt>asdf/driver</tt>, aka <tt>uiop</tt>,
            which is part of ASDF,
            and exports its functionality
            in its own package <tt>uiop</tt>.
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          </li>
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	  <li><tt>asdf-condition-control</tt>, initially part of XCVB's <tt>xcvb-driver</tt>,
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            allowed you to muffle uninteresting conditions during compilation.
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            Is now superseded by equivalent functionality in <tt>uiop</tt>.
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          </li>
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	</ul>

        <h3>Contributing</h3>
        <p>Join our mailing list, check the code out from git,
          send questions, ideas and patches!
        </p>

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        <a id="bugs">
        <h3>Reporting Bugs</h3>
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        <p>To report bugs, you can use our
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          <a href="https://launchpad.net/asdf/">launchpad project</a>.
          If you're unsure about the bug or want to discuss how to fix it,
          you can send email to the project mailing-list below.
        </p>

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        <a id="mailing-lists"></a>
        <h3>Mailing Lists</h3>
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        <ul>
          <li><a href="http://common-lisp.net/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/asdf-devel">asdf-devel</a>:
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            A list for questions, suggestions, bug reports, patches, and so on.
	    It's for everyone and everything. Please join the conversation!
	  </li>
          <li><a href="http://common-lisp.net/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/asdf-announce">asdf-announce</a>:
            A low-volume mailing-list for announcements only, mostly regarding new releases.
	    Posting is restricted to project administrators and to important notices.
	    Please subscribe to it if you're a Lisp implementation or distribution vendor,
	    who needs to know when to upgrade the ASDF you distribute,
	    but are otherwise not interested in day to day design and development.
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        </li></ul>

        <h3>Contributing</h3>
        <p>Join our mailing list, check the code out from git,
          send questions, ideas and patches!
        </p>

        <a id="news"></a>
        <h3>What is happening</h3>
        <dl>
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          <dt>In February 2013</dt>
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          <dd>
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            ASDF 3 now includes both the traditional <tt>asdf/defsystem</tt>
            and a formalized portability library <tt>asdf/driver</tt>.
            <tt>asdf/defsystem</tt> is a backward-compatible reimplementation of ASDF
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            with correct timestamp propagation based on a consistent dependency model,
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            and featuring support for bundle output, deferred warnings check, and more.
            <tt>asdf/driver</tt> provides many abstractions to write portable Common Lisp programs.
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          </dd>
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          <dt>In April 2012</dt>
          <dd>
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            ASDF 2.21 now controls the character encoding used by Lisp source files.
            You can specify different encodings in your defsystem,
            e.g. <kbd>:encoding :latin1</kbd>,
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            if you <kbd>:defsystem-depends-on (:asdf-encodings)</kbd>.
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            While the default will remain to load and compile file
            with the <kbd>:default</kbd> external-format,
            we encourage all library authors to adopt
            the <i>de facto</i> standard, UTF-8,
            for all their source files (.lisp and .asd).
            Our intent is to bless and enforce this standard encoding
            on all these files by default in a not-to-faraway future.
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          </dd>
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          <dt>Since December 2009</dt>
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          <dd>Fran&ccedil;ois-Ren&eacute; Rideau is de facto maintainer,
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            with notable contributions from Robert P. Goldman, but also
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            Juanjo Garcia-Ripoll and James Anderson.
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            ASDF 2 released
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            with many clean-ups, better configurability, some new features,
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            and updated documentation.
          </dd>
          <dt>May 2006 to November 2009</dt>
          <dd>Gary King is de facto maintainer,
            with notable contributions from
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            Robert P. Goldman, Nikodemus Siivola, Christophe Rhodes, Daniel Herring.
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            Many small features and bug fixes,
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            making the project more maintainable,
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            moving to using git and common-lisp.net.
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            Last version: 1.369.
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          </dd>
          <dt>May 2004 to April 2006</dt>
          <dd>Christophe Rhodes is de facto maintainer,
            with notable contributions from
            Nikodemus Siivola, Peter Van Eynde, Edi Weitz, Kevin Rosenberg.
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            The system made more robust, a few more features.
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            Last version: 1.97.
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          <dt>August 2001 to May 2004</dt>
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          <dd>Developed by Daniel Barlow, with notable contributions from
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            Christophe Rhodes, Kevin Rosenberg, Edi Weitz, Rahul Jain.
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            Last version: 1.85.
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          <dt>August 2001</dt>
          <dd>Created by Daniel Barlow</dd>
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      </dl>
          </div>
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        <p><span class="copyright"Copyright &copy; 2001-2013 Daniel Barlow and contributors</span></p>
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        <p>ASDF has an <a href="http://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php">MIT style</a> license</p>
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        <div id="timestamp">Last updated 2013-03-03</div>
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