Commit 362bfc02 authored by Raymond Toy's avatar Raymond Toy

Use markdown section markup

Clean up section headings and other text.
parent 91f93078
Welcome to f2cl - a Fortran to Common Lisp Translator
# Welcome to f2cl - a Fortran to Common Lisp Translator
Contained in this directory are source code files and some documentation.
The translator is written in Common Lisp making installation simple.
Installation
------------
# Installation
If this has been extracted as a part of CLOCC, the way to build f2cl
is to simply run "make system" from a shell, as is usual with CLOCC
......@@ -47,11 +47,11 @@ manually run everything as follows:
to load all the compiled files.
Usage
-----
# Usage
## Converting Fortran Code
Converting Fortran Code
-----------------------
To use f2cl:
```
(f2cl:f2cl "<path>/fortran.f")
......@@ -79,8 +79,7 @@ here is a short list of restrictions that may result in obscure errors:
Note also that an intermediate file called "prep.tmp" is produced by the
preprocessing stage of the translation.
Options
-------
### Options
These are the options available to `f2cl:f2cl` and `f2cl:f2cl-compile`
......@@ -165,8 +164,7 @@ These are the options available to `f2cl:f2cl` and `f2cl:f2cl-compile`
information see below. This mimics the memory layout of how
Fortran treats common blocks. Default = `NIL`.
Using Converted Code
--------------------
# Using Converted Code
Once you've converted the code, you do not need to load up all of f2cl
to use the converted code. In fact, you only need f2cl0.l and
......@@ -174,64 +172,64 @@ macros.l to define the necessary packages and functions used by the
converted code. Actually, you really only need the defpackage for
f2cl-lib in f2cl0.l.
Issues
------
# Issues
For a more detailed list of issues and notes, see src/NOTES.
We highlight just a few issues here.
* Block data statements.
In Fortran, block data statments are used to initialize common
blocks. Since Fortran executables are loaded and run just once,
this is not a problem. However, in Lisp, this might not be true,
and you may want to run the main program many times. Thus, it is
up to you to run the block data initializer at the right time, as
needed. f2cl cannot know when and where to call the initializer.
* Common blocks.
F2cl converts common blocks to structures. However, common blocks
may be referenced in several different files, so the user must
tell f2cl when to define the structure. Use the :declare-common
parameter to tell f2cl to define the structure. This should be
done exactly once for each common block that is defined. This
should also be done for the first file that is compiled and
loaded, so that subsequent files know about the definition.
In addition, there is another option, :common-as-array. This
changes how f2cl handles common blocks. A rather common use of
common blocks has the same common block using different variable
names. For example, one routine might have
## Block data statements.
In Fortran, block data statments are used to initialize common
blocks. Since Fortran executables are loaded and run just once,
this is not a problem. However, in Lisp, this might not be true,
and you may want to run the main program many times. Thus, it is
up to you to run the block data initializer at the right time, as
needed. f2cl cannot know when and where to call the initializer.
## Common blocks.
F2cl converts common blocks to structures. However, common blocks
may be referenced in several different files, so the user must
tell f2cl when to define the structure. Use the :declare-common
parameter to tell f2cl to define the structure. This should be
done exactly once for each common block that is defined. This
should also be done for the first file that is compiled and
loaded, so that subsequent files know about the definition.
In addition, there is another option, :common-as-array. This
changes how f2cl handles common blocks. A rather common use of
common blocks has the same common block using different variable
names. For example, one routine might have
```
COMMON /foo/ a(10), b, i(4)
```
and another might say
and another might say
```
COMMON /foo/ b(9), c, d, j(2), k(2)
```
In Fortran, this is perfectly acceptable. Normally, f2cl expects
all common blocks to use the same variable names, and then f2cl
creates a structure for the common block using the variable names
as the names of the slots. However, for a case like the above,
f2cl gets confused. Hence, :common-as-array. We treat the common
block as an array of memory. So this gets converted into a
structure somewhat like
In Fortran, this is perfectly acceptable. Normally, f2cl expects
all common blocks to use the same variable names, and then f2cl
creates a structure for the common block using the variable names
as the names of the slots. However, for a case like the above,
f2cl gets confused. Hence, :common-as-array. We treat the common
block as an array of memory. So this gets converted into a
structure somewhat like
```
(defstruct foo
(part-0 (make-array 11 :element-type 'real))
(part-1 (make-array 4 :element-type 'integer4)))
```
(In a more general case, we group all contiguous variables of the
same type into one array. f2cl and Lisp cannot handle the case
where a real and integer value are allocated to the same piece of
memory.)
Then in the individual routines, symbol-macrolets are used to
create accessors for the various definitions. Hence, for the
second version, we would do something like
(In a more general case, we group all contiguous variables of the
same type into one array. f2cl and Lisp cannot handle the case
where a real and integer value are allocated to the same piece of
memory.)
Then in the individual routines, symbol-macrolets are used to
create accessors for the various definitions. Hence, for the
second version, we would do something like
```
(symbol-macrolet
(b (make-array 9 :displaced-to
......@@ -247,36 +245,36 @@ We highlight just a few issues here.
:displaced-offset 2))
...)
```
Thus, we access the right parts of the common block, independent
of the name. Note that this has a performance impact since we
used displaced arrays.
Thus, we access the right parts of the common block, independent
of the name. Note that this has a performance impact since we
used displaced arrays.
* Conversion order.
While not necessary, f2cl can do a significantly better job in
generating code if the functions are compiled in the correct
order. This means any function, F, that is called by another
function, G, should compiled first. In this way, f2cl can
determine the calling conventions for F, and generate the
appropriate call for F in G. This is important if F takes an
array argument and G passes a slice of an array to F, or
conversely if F takes a simple variable, and G calls F with an
array reference.
## Conversion order.
While not necessary, f2cl can do a significantly better job in
generating code if the functions are compiled in the correct
order. This means any function, F, that is called by another
function, G, should compiled first. In this way, f2cl can
determine the calling conventions for F, and generate the
appropriate call for F in G. This is important if F takes an
array argument and G passes a slice of an array to F, or
conversely if F takes a simple variable, and G calls F with an
array reference.
If this is not done, the user may have to modify either the
Fortran code or the resulting Lisp code to pass arguments
correctly.
If this is not done, the user may have to modify either the
Fortran code or the resulting Lisp code to pass arguments
correctly.
F2cl cannot always determine whether a slice of an array should be
used or just the single element.
F2cl cannot always determine whether a slice of an array should be
used or just the single element.
See also the file src/NOTES which contains a change log. But there
are also various notes about about restrictions and enhancements on
various features supported by f2cl.
Acknowledgments:
# Acknowledgments
The translator was written by Kevin Broughan and Diane Koorey Willcock
at the University of Waikato. Reports should be sent to
......
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